Early Kodacolor & Ektacolor print material - researched by Michael Talbert

Index to this web page:
Michael Talbert
has provided a considerable amount of historical information on the early Kodak print films, Kodacolor, Ektacolor and Vericolor, plus their printing processes. This is set out below.
To assist in reaching a specific topic, please use the hyperlinks in the following index.
Also, see his research on Ektachrome transparency slide film and prints on Ektachrome RC paper.
Also, see his research on early Agfa colour print materials.
  1. Before Kodacolor print film
    Processing early Kodachrome
    Kodachrome Prints ~ Kotavachrome
    Contrast Masks made from Kodachrome Sheet Film Transparencies for Kotavachrome Prints

    Kodacolor Aero Reversible Film
  2. Kodacolor Colour Negative Film ~ Introduction (from 1941)
  3. Kodacolor Film from 1942 to 1955
    Kodacolor Film in 1942
    Kodacolor Film in 1944
    Kodacolor Film in 1949 ~ Colour masked Kodacolor Film
    Kodacolor Film in 1955 'Universal Type' ~ Process C-22
    Subsequent Process C-22 Kodacolor Films
    Process C-41 Kodacolor II Films
  4. Ektacolor & Vericolor Internegative Films and Print Films
    Kodak Internegative Color Film (6008)
    C-22 Processing of Kodak Ektacolor Internegative Film
    Vericolor Internegative, Print and Slide Films
  5. Kodacolor Film Processing
    Processing Procedure from 1942 to 1944
    Processing Procedure from 1944 to 1949 (1944 film type)
    Processing Procedure from 1949 to 1955 (1949 film type)
    Process C-22 Processing Procedure post-1955
    Process C-22 from 1963

    Processing C-22 Film in C-41 Chemistry
    Alternatively, try Black & White Processing Chemistry
  6. Kodacolor II Film and the Flexicolor Process C-41
    Process C – 41 using Flexicolor chemistry
    “Rack and Tank” continuous processors using C-41
    A process cross between the C-41 and the C-22 for Kodacolor II film
    How the C-41 processing solutions worked
  1. Kodacolor ~ Making the Print; from 1942
    Kodak 1599 Printers
    1st Printing Method (as from 1942)
    2nd Printing Method
    3rd Printing Method
  2. Kodacolor Papers, from 1942
    Kodacolor Type I
    Kodacolor Type II
    Kodacolor Type III
    Kodacolor III Type 1348
    Kodak Color Print Material, Type C
    Ageing; Effect on Early Kodak and Agfa Prints

    Kodacolor Home Processing; in the US and the UK
  3. Ektacolor Papers, from 1958
    Ektacolor Paper
    Ektacolor 20 Paper (marketed in USA from 1964-68; in UK from 1966)
    Ektacolor Commercial Paper

    Ektacolor Professional Paper
    Ektacolor 47RC Papers

    Ektacolor 30RC Paper
    Ektacolor 37RC Paper
    Ektacolor 74RC Paper
  4. Kodacolor & Ektacolor Paper Processing
    The P-122 Process from 1942
    Ektacolor Paper Processing in P-122 from 1959

    P-122 Six-bath procedure from 1962
    P-122 Five-bath procedure from 1963
  5. Ektaprint C Chemicals from 1964
    Ektaprint C Processing Procedure
    Working with Ektaprint C chemicals
  6. Kodak Rapid Colour Processors 16-K and 11-L and the CP-5 Process
    CP-5 Processing Steps
  7. The Kodak Color Processor Model 30
  8. Processing in Ektaprint 3 Chemicals, from 1971
    Ektaprint 3 Process with a Stop-Bath
    Ektacolor 37 RC Paper in Ektaprint 3 using the Kodak Rapid Colour Processors, H-11L and 16K

    Ektacolor 37 RC Paper in Ektaprint 3 using the Kodak Rapid Colour Processors, Models 30 and 30A
  9. Kodak Safelight Filters for Colour Negative Printing Papers
  10. Kodak Ektaprint 2 process, from 1976
    Ektaprint 2 Process for dish or tank processing of Ektacolor 37RC paper or Ektacolor 74RC paper
    Ektaprint 2 Process with additional Stop Bath and Wash steps
    Ektacolor 37RC & 74RC paper in Kodak Rapid Processors; Ektaprint 300 Dev. & Ektaprint 2 Bleach Fix
    Ektaprint 2 colour print processing chemicals for processing machines ~ 1980
  11. Publications
    Acknowledgements

Charlie Kamerman has recently (February 2012) sent me some pictures of items within his amazing collection of early Kodak films. Charlie says "I have hundreds of boxes of film from 1891 through the 1980's."
To view just a few, please click here.
And do take a look at Charlie's site www.Kodakcollector.com

  1. Ektacolor Colour Negative Film; announced 1947, on sale 1949
    Ektacolor Film Type B
    Ektacolor Processing Kit for Type B
    Ektacolor processing from around 1956 ~ Process B-41
  2. Ektacolor Printing
    Black and White Prints
    Colour Prints
    Ektacolor Print Film
    Kodak Color Print Material, Type C (also see under Kodacolor Paper in Kodacolor Index listing to the left)
    Printing Paper by other Manufacturers
  3. Ektacolor Film Type L
  4. Ektacolor Film Type S
  5. Ektacolor Professional Film Type S ~ short exposure
  6. Ektacolor Professional Film Type L ~ long exposure
  7. Processing Ektacolor Professional and Ektacolor Type S and L
  8. Storage of unexposed Ektacolor and Ektacolor Professional Films
  1. Kodak Vericolor Films; from 1970 in USA, from 1972 in UK
  2. Kodak Vericolor II Professional Films


Before KODACOLOR Print Film

16mm home ciné colour film, named Kodacolor, appeared in 1928. Improved colour in the form of Kodachrome then arrived in the 16mm ciné format in 1935 and by 1936 Kodachrome was also available in 8mm ciné and 35mm still formats. The early 1928 Kodacolor was a lenticular additive colour film which employed the 'lenticular' process which made use of a black and white film stock, the base of which was embossed with a large number of minute lenses or cylidrical ribs, 22 elements per millimetre. When exposed through the base using a camera lens fitted with a banded three-colour filter, the image was recorded as a number of colour separation elements which, after a reversal processing, could be projected through a similar lens and filter to produce the original colours. The process, which had a number of disadvantages, was discontinued in 1935 with the introduction of Kodachrome.

By the early 1930's, colour photography had reached well past the experimental stage. When “Agfacolor Neu” reversal film first made it’s appearance in 1936 it proved that a multi-layer colour film could be manufactured with the colour couplers incorporated into the three separate emulsion layers coated on the same support and processed in a single colour developer. A year previous to this, Eastman Kodak had marketed 16mm “Kodachrome” motion picture film but had chosen to process the film by a method of including the colour couplers for the three emulsion layers in three separate colour developers. Initially the processing procedure was extremely complicated. Not only were there three separate colour developers involved, but the film also had to be put through three separate “Dye Bleach “ baths, each penetrating the emulsion layers to a varying extent.

Processsing early Kodachrome
It was possible that because Kodachrome's colour couplers were put into three separate colour developers rather than into the layers of the film, processed Kodachrome had more fade resistance than Agfacolor. The Kodak method would have given more choice of colour couplers for generating the yellow, magenta, and cyan dyes in the processed transparency. However, it also meant that from 1935 to 1938 Kodachrome was processed by an incredibly complicated method.

The first step was a black and white developer, which produced a black and white negative image in each layer. As this was not wanted, it was removed by a bleaching bath.
The film was then exposed to white light, to fog the remaining silver halide for development to a transparency. The bottom layer, red sensitive producing a cyan coloured image, was then developed in a developer containing a cyan coupler.
Unfortunately, as the film had been fogged in all three layers, this cyan developer produced a cyan image in the other two layers ! Therefore, following the cyan developer, there was a special bleaching bath which was only allowed to act on the top two layers, (green sensitive and blue sensitive), which bleached out the cyan dye, and made the silver developable again.
The magenta developer followed. This developer containing the magenta colour coupler and developed the middle green sensitive, (magenta dye forming), layer as well as the top layer, producing a magenta dye image in the middle layer and the top layer. Another special bleaching bath, only allowed to reach the top layer, bleached out the magenta dye and prepared the top layer for development in the yellow developer.
The top layer, blue sensitive, was then developed in the yellow dye forming developer
Then the silver images were removed by bleaching and fixing, leaving just the dye image.
No doubt there were also various stop baths, washes and maybe hardening / stabilising baths. It was not a process to carry out in a home darkroom !!

In 1938 the process was much simplified and the re-exposure step was made with red light fogging the bottom layer, which was then developed, then blue light for the top layer, which was then developed, and finally, the magenta layer was chemically fogged, and developed in the magenta developer. The selective exposures made sure that only one layer could be developed at a time. Although much simplified, the sequence was still too complicated to be carried out by a photographer using equipment in his own darkroom.

Colour prints at that time were being made from transparencies by manual 'registration' methods such as "Tri-Chrome Carbro" and the "Kodak Wash-Off Relief", plus others. Mainly, these printing processes were only used by professional advertising photographers, since they were difficult to manipulate and involved much time and skill to get the best result, making the cost of even one print well beyond the pocket of the average amateur photographer. However, by 1941, Eastman Kodak had introduced a fairly quick and relatively cheap method of making prints from Kodachrome transparencies. Despite this facility, a colour transparency is not the ideal starting point for making a good colour print. The brightness range of the average Kodachrome could not be accommodated satisfactorily on the printing paper, resulting in white, burnt out, highlights and black shadows lacking in detail.

Kodachrome Prints

In the late 1930s, Eastman Kodak were making experimental prints from Kodachrome transparencies onto a white plastic film base coated with a type of Kodachrome emulsion. This produced a reversal print from the Kodachrome slide.

In September 1941, Eastman Kodak began two types of colour print services:
(i) mainly for amateur photographers taking pictures on 35mm Kodachrome film, was for “Minicolor Prints”, which were available in 3x or 5x enlargements from 35mm transparencies, and
(ii) aimed mainly at professional photographers who were, by then, using the new “Kodachrome Professional” sheet film, introduced in 1938, to make large transparencies. By 1943, this film was obtainable in sizes up to 11ins. x 14ins. This more elaborate and expensive service was for “Kotavachrome Professional” prints, obtainable from original Kodachrome sheet film transparencies. Before printing, a black and white contrast mask was made from each sheet film transparency which, when bound up with the transparency before printing onto the Kodachrome print material, had the effect of lowering the image contrast, resulting in improved highlight and shadow detail in the finished print. Kotavachrome prints ranged in size from 8ins. x 10ins to 30ins x 40ins.

Eastman Kodak were also considering manufacturing a negative/positive version of Kodachrome.The negative and a print material would both have to be processed by the intricate method of the Kodachrome process. It was decided that the whole concept would have been far too complicated to put into practise.

Contrast Masks made from Kodachrome Sheet Film Transparencies for Kotavachrome Prints
Unless the Kodachrome transparency to be printed was very soft in contrast, the contrast range of most transparencies would not match the print material, reproducing the shadow areas as black without detail and the highlights as almost pure white with no detail in them. The purpose of a mask was to reduce the overall contrast which, if combined with the transparency when printing, would result in a better reproduction of the highlight and shadow areas in the print.

Each mask was made on “Kodak Masking Panchromatic Film”. Masking Panchromatic was a black and white sheet film which had a thin removable light sensitive layer attached to the film base. In total darkness, or under very dim dark green safelighting, this layer was carefully removed from it’s base and cemented onto the emulsion side of the Kodachrome sheet film transparency to be printed. The base side of the masking film’s removable layer was in contact with the emulsion side of the transparency.

The Kodachrome was then exposed through the base, the emulsion side facing away from the light source, thus printing the highlights onto the layer of the masking film. Most masks were exposed with a red filter in front of the light source which improved the colour rendering of the greens and cyans in the Kotavachrome print.

The exposed mask was processed to a negative while still attached to the transparency, the layer of film protecting the emulsion side of the Kodachrome from any harmful black and white processing chemicals. The mask layer was attached to the Kodachrome with its emulsion side outwards, so as to allow the black and white developing chemicals to act on the b&w layer.

When processed and dried, the combination was used to expose the Kotavachrome print material, again exposing with the base of the Kodachrome facing the light source. After the print was processed, the mask layer of film was peeled off the transparency. Unlike other methods of masking, which required a separate piece of film to be registered with the transparency, there were no registration problems using this method as the mask, once exposed, never left the transparency until after the final print was made.

(For a more complete explanation on masking using a separate film and for colour correction see “Duplicating Transparencies”)

Although “Minicolor” prints were made from amateur photographer’s 35 mm transparencies, Eastman Kodak also made Kotavachrome prints from 35mm Kodachromes. The 35mm size was masked in the same way but the protective layer of varnish on 35 mm films had to be removed before the masking layer could be attached.

Kodak Masking Panchromatic Film was available in various sizes, viz:
3 inch x 10 inch for 35mm and Bantam (size 828) transparencies. For sheet film sizes: 3¼ inch x 5 inch for 2¼ inch x 3¼ inch transparencies up to 10 inch x 11 inch for 8 inch x 10 inch transparencies.

Although Kotavachrome prints could only be made by Eastman Kodak, the Masking Panchromatic film was also used by Colour Laboratories and Professional Photographers making colour prints from transparencies by the “Kodak Wash Off Relief “ Process, which became known as the “Dye Transfer” process after 1945 in the U.S.A.

Kodacolor Aero Reversible Film

In 1939, Vittum and Jelly, of Eastman Kodak, discovered a type of colour coupler which, unlike the Kodachrome developer couplers, could be combined with the three emulsion layers of a colour film. The new couplers were incorporated into a resinous binder. They were known as “Protected Couplers”, as they were carried in small particles of organic materials which protected them from any reactions of the silver bromide emulsions. The colour couplers were then within the emulsion but not in complete physical contact with it.

Like Agfa’s Agfacolor Neu film of 1936, any colour material, film or paper, having the colour couplers combined with the three emulsion layers at the time of manufacture, could be processed in a much simpler, and much faster, manner than that of Kodachrome. Only one colour developer and one bleach bath were required.

The first film manufactured by Eastman Kodak containing “Protected Couplers” was Kodacolor Aero Reversible Film in 1940. Mainly used by the United States Army Air Force for reconnaissance purposes, the special feature of this film was that it could be processed anywhere without elaborate equipment. Kits of chemicals for making up the five processing baths were available. Processing was much like E1 but with longer times, very likely processing at 68°F (20°C). The time taken to process the film, not including drying, was around 90 minutes.

Despite the name “Kodacolor”, the film produced a transparency after processing, and bore no relationship, apart from the colour couplers, to the eventual Kodacolor negative film.The processing sequence and chemical baths for Kodacolor Aero Reversible film were not unlike the processing procedure and baths for the earliest type of Kodak Ektachrome sheet films (see here).

It was probably about 6 to 10 ASA and had a high contrast.

Two sets of filters were supplied with the film, one filter to correct for the various emulsion differences, and to balance it for average daylight. The other filter, or filters, were to correct for “haze”, or blueishness in distant subjects. The “Haze” filters were likely to have been, “Wratten Filter No.1”, and “Wratten Filter No.2A”, 2A being slightly stronger.

It was replaced, or renamed, ”Ektachrome Aero film – High contrast”, possibly in 1946.




KODACOLOR Colour Negative Film ~ Introduction

In the U.S.A., before World War II, there was a definite desire amongst amateur photographers for a film which produced prints in colour, just as easily as black and white negative film. The photographer could then order one print for his album, one for his friends, and one to put in a frame.

In November 1941, the Director of Research at the Eastman Kodak Company, Dr. Kenneth Mees, outlined an entirely new system for making colour prints from a colour negative film - called Kodacolor. The announcement was entitled "Direct Processes for Making Photographic Prints in Color, communication No.832, from Kodak Research Laboratories.” Like Kodachrome, this film was coated with three light sensitive layers, sensitive to red, green, and blue light. Each layer incorporated colour couplers, like Kodacolor Aero film, and after exposure the film could be developed in a single colour developer, producing a colour image in each layer. After bleaching and fixing, an image of pure dyes was formed of the original subject.

However, this was where the similarity between previous colour films ended. Unlike Kodachrome, or Kodacolor Aero film, this was a negative image, colours were reversed as well as density. Areas of blue sky reproduced as dark yellow, grass became pink, and reds became blue-green. The photographic colour printing terms of "pink" and "blue-green" are the subtractive colours magenta and cyan.

All processing of Kodacolor films was undertaken by Eastman Kodak at Rochester N.Y. The photographer handed in his exposed films to a Kodak dealer who sent the films to Eastman Kodak at Rochester. The cost of processing the film was included in the film price at the time of purchase but did not include the cost of any prints.

To allow the film to be used in fairly basic, non adjustable cameras, the film speed of Kodacolor was at least twice that of Kodachrome. A Weston rating of 20 (25 ASA or ISO) was quoted in the data sheets. This was adequate for an exposure of 1/50th of a second at f11 for an average subject in bright sunlight. Initially, the film was balanced for daylight and blue flashbulb exposures. The data sheets gave specific instructions for "fill-in" flash exposures using Nos. 21B and 5B photoflash lamps. The film speed was increased by one third of an f-stop in 1955, to Weston 25, or 32ASA/ISO.

Although the Kodak Data book - "Kodachrome and Kodacolor Films" mentions that Kodacolor film had a limited exposure latitude compared with black and white films, it also pointed out "Satisfactory Kodacolor prints can be made from Kodacolor negatives which received as much as two full f-stops more than the correct exposure". However, overexposed negatives generally gave a lack of detail in the highlights of the print, while under exposure caused black shadows and low contrast prints. Photographers were also warned that Kodacolor pictures made on dull, overcast, cloudy days tended to turn out flat (lacking in contrast) and with a blueish colour cast.

Good black and white prints could be made from Kodacolor negatives, and so a colour negative which had been incorrectly exposed, or lacked colour accuracy due to being exposed under mixed lighting conditions, could often be used to at least produce a satisfactory black and white print.

Eastman Kodak described "Kodacolor" as a "colour medium for snapshotters", who prefered a colour print as their end result, as opposed to a Kodachrome transparency. Kodacolor gave pleasing, attractive colour prints but the process could not give exact colour fidelity. Reds and blues were reproduced well, yellows were rather dull, while greens tended to be tinged with blue.

The structure of the film was similar to the early Agfacolor negative film, consisting of three colour sensitive layers. The Red sensitive layer, producing the cyan dye image, was coated on the base of the film. On top of the red sensitive layer was coated the green sensitive, producing a magenta dye image, then a yellow filter layer, and on top, a blue sensitive layer, giving a yellow dye image.

The film was principally intended for amateur photographers, with simple, basic roll film cameras. In 1942, when Kodacolor first appeared (in the US) roll films were available in six different sizes:- 127, 120, 620, 116, 616, and 122. 35mm Kodacolor film was not manufactured because this film size was well catered for by Kodachrome and, at that time, the enlarging of a small 35mm image would have shown the granular structure of the early Kodacolor film in print areas of medium density, such as a cloudless sky.

At that time, all processing and printing of Kodacolor film was carried out by Eastman Kodak at their laboratories at Rochester, N.Y. The photographer handed in his exposed rolls of film to a Kodak photographic dealer who then sent the films to Rochester for either, “developing only” or “develop and print”. The purchase price of the film included “developing only”. In the first instance the photographer was able to see the negatives before ordering prints. Then he selected the best exposed negatives and marked the order e.g.“one off or two off” as the case might be.

In “Develop and Print” there was no way the photographer could see the negatives before they were printed, and he had to take a chance on whether his exposures were correct. Eastman Kodak printed one print off each of the negatives according to the negative quality within certain limits. Some negatives may have been judged by the printer as too bad to print (gross underexposure, fogged), and if these particular negatives were important to the photographer for personal reasons, those negatives had to be returned by the owner marked “Print regardless”.

All prints, irrespective of negative size, were made 2&7/8ins wide plus white borders of about ¼ins all round. The length depended upon the length of the negative. The smallest prints were from square negative, and the largest from size 122 rollfilm, which, in some cameras, produced a massive 3¼ x 5½ ins negative. The print size from these negatives was 2&7/8ins x 5&1/8ins, a little smaller than the negative! However, 122 rollfilm was short lived, by 1948 this size was no longer manufactured in Kodacolor.

KODACOLOR Film from 1942 to 1955

Fronm 1942 to 1955 three kinds of Kodacolor were manufactured by Eastman-Kodak, each an improved version of the proceeding one. The first two versions were balanced for daylight.

Kodacolor Film in 1942
The original Kodacolor film, marketed as from March 1942, had three colour sensitive emulsion layers. The red sensitive layer was coated next to the film base, on top of this was the green sensitive layer, then a yellow filter layer, and lastly a blue sensitive layer. During development of the film, each layer generated it’s opposite colour. The red sensitive layer would produce a cyan image, the green a magenta image, and the blue a yellow image. The purpose of the yellow filter layer was to prevent any blue light reaching the middle and bottom emulsion layers as these were also sensitive to blue light. The yellow filter layer was not light sensitive. The arrangement of the emulsion layers was similar to that of the early types of Kodacolor paper (see above). The three emulsion layers were coated on a safety film base with an anti–halation backing. This original form of Kodacolor film was marketed from 1942 to 1944.

Kodacolor Film in 1944
Because the dyes generated by the early colour couplers at that time were far from ideal, the colour printing paper was purposely manufactured to be of very high contrast to increase the colour saturation of the prints. Unfortunately, this meant that pictures taken in contrasty lighting conditions, bright sunlight, or flash-on-camera, produced prints with dark shadows with no detail or white, burnt out, highlights.

To alleviate this problem, from 1944 an extra emulsion layer was included, between the yellow filter layer and the green sensitive, magenta dye forming layer. This layer acted as a “positive mask.” It’s function was to decrease the contrast of the colour negative as a whole but without any loss of colour saturation.

The actual layer itself was a black and white emulsion, sensitive only to blue light. It was too slow to be affected by the camera exposure, it’s speed being much the same as a Process film or Line film emulsion. Process film was a slow speed, high contrast, blue sensitive film, used for copying black and white line originals, and for making positive transparencies from soft black and white negatives. It was faster and less contrasty than Line Film. Line film was a very slow speed, very high contrast blue sensitive film for making line negatives from architects and engineers plans and drawings. Both films had various uses in photolithography.

As a result of the positive mask layer, the colour negatives appeared rather “heavy” regardless of exposure and required a longer printing exposure. It is believed that processing of the film took slightly longer because the mask layer had to be developed separately to the three colour sensitive layers.

After processing the mask held back some of the light projected through the shadow areas of the negative. Since the mask added density to the shadow areas, less light could reach the printing paper from the shadow area, so the printing exposure could be increased to put more detail into the highlights of the print, thus lowering the overall contrast. The mask only added density to the shadow areas of the negative.

Kodacolor film with the black and white mask was marketed from 1944 to 1949.

Kodacolor Film in 1949 ~ Colour masked Kodacolor Film.
Correct colour reproduction in the print relies, amongst other requirements, that each dye image in the negative film absorbs its opposite colour. That is, the cyan dye image must absorb red and pass only cyan light, the magenta dye image must absorb green and pass only magenta, and the yellow dye image must absorb blue and pass only yellow. Unfortunately, the dyes produced by colour development in Kodacolor film were imperfect, particularly evident in magenta and cyan.

Due to the dye deficiencies, the magenta dye absorbed some blue light, which it should have passed freely, and the cyan dye absorbed a portion of light of it’s own colour. Prints made from Kodacolor negatives showed greens tending towards blue and weak reds. In the first case the blue light which was being absorbed by the magenta dye should have been used to make the green yellower. In the second case the portion of cyan dye that was being absorbed by it’s own layer should have been used to make the print redder. More blue light makes the print yellower, and more cyan light makes the print redder. If the green in the print was too blue and a blue filter was inserted in the printer to correct this, it is likely the whole print would turn out too yellow, as the other colours in the print would have been correct, or nearly so.

A solution to this problem of dye deficiencies was first thought of by W.T.Hanson of Eastman Kodak in 1943. His proposal was to create a “mask” in the film by making use of “coloured couplers” to correct for the overlapping absorptions of the cyan and magenta dyes.


Found on the American e-bay, a roll of 120 size Kodacolor Type A film, manufactured in 1949, for Photoflood Lighting and Clear Flash Bulbs. It is dated: ”Develop before November 1950.”

The coloured mask was actually a positive image, exactly registered with a defective negative dye image. The coloured mask corrected the dye deficiencies in the negative image to the extent of the overlapping absorptions. The negatives took on an orange–red colour.

Kodacolor film with “integral coloured masking” as it was called, was produced from 1949, and in the same year an artificial light version of the film was launched (see left). It was balanced for Type A photoflood lamps (approximately 3400°K). It’s speed to photoflood lighting was 20ASA and it could be exposed to daylight with a Kodachrome Type A filter, No. 85 at 12ASA.

Paul Godfrey has supplied me with two pdf files which contain details of Kodak's colour printing services available in the USA during 1952 and 1953.

Kodacolor Film in 1955 ~ Process C-22
“Kodacolor Universal film“ replaced both Daylight and Type A Kodacolor in 1955. The Universal film was balanced for Clear flashbulbs and was one third of a stop faster at 32ASA.

Subsequent Process C-22 KODACOLOR Films
Kodacolor Film became “Kodacolor X” film in 1962
, supplied at first in 35mm 20 exposure cassettes and 12 exposure cartridges for the new Kodak “Instamatic” cameras. The film speed was doubled, to 64ASA (ISO), partly so that the cheaper versions of the “Instamatic” cameras could then cope with exposures in dull lighting. By 1963 the roll film sizes of Kodacolor were doubled in film speed and were re-named “Kodacolor X”.

To view a picture of box of 120 Kodacolor roll film (as manufactured around 1959) and Kodacolor X roll film (as manufactured around 1966), click here.

Kodacolor X remained on the market until 1975, but thereafter the C-22 Kodacolor & Kodacolor X films were gone forever. However, the C-22 process lived on for another four years.
Kodak Ektacolor Print Film 4109, Kodak Ektacolor Slide Film 5028 and Kodak Ektacolor Internegative Film 6110 and 6008 were all processed in C-22 chemicals until the Vericolor Print and Internegative films were introduced, in 1978 (Print) and 1979 (Internegative). To read more, go to the next section, below, Internegative and Print Film.

The C-22 process was last mentioned in the British Journal of Photography Annual (BJPA) 1985 edition, with formulae and processing steps.

Process C-41 KODACOLOR II Films
The new “Kodacolor II “ films were first introduced in 1972 for Kodak “Pocket Instamatic” cameras, taking the new 110 size cartridge. Processing was done in Kodak “Flexicolor” chemicals, later known as “Process C-41”. By 1975, roll film, 35mm, and cartridge format type film were all available as Kodacolor II (100ASA; later joined by Kodacolor 400 in 35mm from 1977 and roll film from 1978 - UK dates).

     

C-22 Unit 1 part kit
This part contains the Developer and Stop-Bath for the C-22 process. The Developer chemicals to be mixed in water consisted of two powder components and one bottle of liquid. The powder components were mixed first in water at 70°F – 80°F and then the liquid was added. This solution would keep for 6 weeks if unused, but once used the developer would keep only for 4 weeks.

The Stop-Bath component was one bottle of liquid chemical to be diluted with water. This would keep for 8 weeks, unused or partially used.

The Unit 2 part contained the Hardener, Bleach, Fixer, and Photo-Flo chemicals for the rest of the process.

This Unit 1 Kit dates from 1972, when the author was processing a considerable amount of Kodacolor X and Ektacolor films.


Ektacolor Internegative Films and Print Films
Internegative Films were for making negatives from transparencies which could then be printed onto Ektacolor paper.
Print Film was designed for making large display transparencies from colour negatives and Internegatives.

Kodak Internegative Color Film (6008)
A 35mm Internegative film was available in the U.K. sold in 80ft. lengths.

Listed in the Kodak Professional Catalogue for the U.K. in 1964 as “Kodak Internegative Color Film”, the description mentions that the film could be processed in C-22 chemicals with a modification to the development time. This was very likely to be a reduction in the time of the development, normally 12 minutes as for Kodacolor or Kodacolor X film in 1964.

By the late 1960s the film became known as “Kodak Internegative Color Film 6008” and by then it was recommended that development was carried out in the special Internegative developer consisting of Internegative Replenisher and Internegative Starting solution. Development time was 6 minutes and the remaining solutions were the normal C-22 chemicals and timings.

In 1971 the film became “Kodak Ektacolor Internegative Film 6008” to be replaced by “Vericolor Internegative Film 6011” in 1978 (see below). This film was initially known as “SO-406”.

To view a picture showing boxes of Ektacolor Internegative Film and Ektacolor Print Film, click here.

Processing Kodak Ektacolor Internegative Film
Kodak Ektacolor Internegative Films 6110 and 6008 (35mm) were processed in Kodak Colour Film Process C-22 but the normal C-22 developer was replaced by a special internegative developer. The rest of the solutions for processing the film were the same C-22 solutions, washes and timings as for camera colour negative films. Many laboratories in the U.K. operated a separate 3 gallon tank processing line specifically for Ektacolor Internegative sheet film.

The Internegative Developer working solution was made up of “Internegative Replenisher” to which was added “Internegative Starting Solution”. Using a 3 gallon tank line the development time was five minutes for the sheet film and six minutes for the 35mm film at 75°F +/– ½°F with an increased agitation rate. The Internegative Replenisher was used on it’s own to replenish the Internegative developer.

Michael Talbert has experience of developing Internegative sheet film in the normal C-22 developer for 7 minutes at 75°F. Internegatives processed in normal C-22 developer did not match the quality of Internegatives processed in the special Internegative developer. Less shadow detail was recorded on the negative and increasing the exposure did not help matters as the Internegatives then had too much contrast. The contrast of Ektacolor Internegative film was controlled by the exposure, less exposure – less contrast, increasing the exposure increased the contrast. The exposure range of the film was about four stops, keeping within the limits of 1second to 16seconds (though this was increased to seven stops in the 1970s, 1/10second to 16seconds). If the exposure time was decreased below 1second, or increased much above 16seconds, the highlight to shadow colour balance changed and prints made from such Internegatives would show colour mis-matches e.g: Pink (magenta) highlights – green shadows. Within limits, the colour balance and contrast of the Internegative film could be adjusted so that an improved print could be made from an otherwise out of balance, underexposed transparency, but it was difficult to make an improved print from an over exposed transparency, though still possible to alter the highlight to shadow colour balance fairly successfully. A starting filtration was given in the instruction sheet for Ektacolor Internegative film of 50 yellow, 20 magenta, 0 cyan. (50 20 -) made up of Kodak Colour Printing filters. This filtration could be changed to correct the highlight to shadow colour. When making the print it was not possible to alter the highlight to shadow colour balance with the print filtration.

Slight contrast changes could be made to the print by altering the development time but this sometimes resulted in “cross curves”, highlights of the print turning the opposite colour to the shadow areas, especially with lower contrast. Agfacolor papers generally had more latitude in contrast changes by altering development times that Kodak Ektacolor papers. When making a print from an internegative, it was far better to alter the contrast of the print by changing the internegative exposure than varying the development time of the printing paper.

Michael's own experience of making many Internegatives and then making prints from these Internegatives, was that the film could give outstanding results provided filtration (controlling the highlight to shadow balance was carefully set up) and exposure were correct. For prints made from 35mm or 2¼" square original transparencies, it was best to first make an enlarged internegative, 4 x 5ins being the normal size.

10 x 8ins Internegatives made from 35mm transparencies were not uncommon if a horizontal enlarger, e.g. a De Vere Mark X, was used to make a print measured in feet. Generally, the larger the required print, the larger the Internegative.

Vericolor Internegative, Print and Slide Films

These were developed in the normal C-41 process with development times and replenishment rates as for Vericolor II camera films. No special developer was needed. The Vericolor Internegative and Print Films were only intended for laboratory use & processing, not for exposure in a camera.
Kodak Vericolor Internegative Film
The internegative films were for making negatives from transparencies which could then be printed onto Ektacolor paper.
Kodak Vericolor Internegative Film 6011 (roll),
Kodak Vericolor Internegative Film 4112 (sheet)

Kodak Vericolor Print Film
Kodak Vericolor Print Film 4111 (sheet) was designed for making large display transparencies from colour negatives and internegatives. It had a thick base and a matt surface to facilitate retouching and was available in sheets and wide rolls. It replaced Kodak Ektacolor Print Film.

Kodak Vericolor Slide Film
Kodak Vericolor Slide Film 5072 (roll) was designed for making 35mm and 46mm transparencies from colour negatives and internegatives. The film had a thin, clear base and was available only in rolls, 35mm and 46mm wide. It replaced Kodak Ektacolor Slide Film. Vericolor Slide Film was initially available as “SO-372”. An “SO” numbered product meant that it could be withdrawn at any time without warning and there was no guarantee that a similar product would replace it. 5072 was most likely an improved version of SO-372.

     

KODACOLOR FILM PROCESSING

There is little known of the methods and processing procedures Eastman Kodak used at Rochester to process the earliest versions of Kodacolor film. As early Kodacolor film was available only in roll film sizes, it is likely that “dip and dunk” film processing machines were used to develop the films to colour negatives. Modified black and white film processing machines may have been employed, more tanks being added for extra chemical solutions and washes.

1942 to 1944 ~ Kodacolor Processing procedure
Below is a very rough estimate of a procedure which might be close to the actual processing procedure for developing Kodacolor unmasked negative film i.e from 1942 to1944.

Develop.
Wash.
Hardener or Hardener-Fix.
Wash.
Bleach.
Wash.
Fixer or Hardening Fixer.
Final Wash

The temperature of the baths is likely to have been around 68°F.
This processing procedure is based partly on Kodak colour film process C-22 and also the Agfacolor negative process being used at that time, since the structure of Kodacolor and Agfacolor negative films were fairly similar in the early 1940s.

1944 to 1949 ~ Kodacolor Processing (the second type of Kodacolor film)
I worked out this theory about seven years ago, but I don’t know if the “chemistry” is correct, or for that matter, if the processing steps are correct. This is a rough outline of how the film might have been processed.

The film had a black and white contrast “mask” layer between the yellow filter later and the green sensitive layer. The mask layer was a very slow speed, blue sensitive emulsion, too slow to be affected by any camera exposure. The film was processed to form a dye negative image in each of the three colour coupling layers. The film was then exposed to blue light through the base, printing the already developed cyan dye and magenta dye layers onto the mask layer. The exposure did not affect the blue sensitive top layer because the yellow filter , underneath the blue sensitive layer would “stop” any blue light. The mask layer was then processed in a soft working black and white developer to form a weak positive mask image of the shadow areas of the green sensitive layer and red sensitive layer. The exposure of this layer took place after the film had passed through the Bleach bath. The idea was, when the negative was printed onto Kodacolor paper, obviously through the base of he film,the mask would have held back some of the exposing light from the shadow areas of the negative, thus lowering the contrast.

The processing sequence may have been something like the one used for the original Kodacolor film outlined above but with additional steps.

Developer Forms a dye image in the three colour coupling layers

Stop-bath or Wash
Bleach The Bleach bath converts the exposed and developed metallic silver (camera exposure) to silver halide so it can be made soluble in the Fixer. The Bleach works only on the exposed, developed silver halide so the mask layer is unaffected
Re-Exposure The film is re-exposed to blue light to print the two developed dye forming layers onto the mask layer. The film is exposed through the base
Black and White development The Mask layer is developed in a soft working black and white developer
After black and white development and before fixing the film may have looked like this from the emulsion side downwards:
Yellow layer – Bleached exposed silver halide.
Yellow Filter - Still present.
Mask layer - Developed but not fixed.
Magenta layer – Bleached exposed silver halide.
Cyan layer – Bleached exposed silver halide
Fixer, performs the actions itemised: 1. Colour Negative. Removes silver halide formed by Bleach in exposed dye layers to leave pure dye.
2. Colour Negative. Removes silver halide in unexposed dye layers.
3. Black and white positive mask. Removes silver halide in unexposed black and white layer to leave positive mask.
4. Removes yellow filter layer (or it is also possible that the yellow filter layer might have been removed in a separate bath inserted between steps 8 and 10 (see below), or it may have been removed in the black and white developer.
The Fixer leaves exposed metallic silver in the mask layer as this was not turned into removeable silver halide in the Bleach. All silver halide is removed from the negative dye forming layers to make a colour negative.

Possible Processing Sequence:

1. Colour Developer
2. Stop-Bath or Wash
3. Hardener
4. Wash
5. Bleach
6. Wash
7. Re-Exposure
8. Black and White Developer for mask
9. Wash
10. Fixer
11. Final wash
12. Wetting Agent rinse
13. Dry

KODACOLOR Film Processing, 1949 – 1955 ~ (the third type of Kodacolor Film)
May have been processed in the same way as the first type or very nearly so. The presence of coloured couplers incorporated in the film would not have caused the processing sequence to differ. The film did not now contain a black and white mask so the total processing time may have been shorter than the previous sequence. Owing to the coloured couplers generated within the film, the overall contrast was now softer, the resulting prints showing improved shadow and highlight detail.

Process C-22 KODACOLOR Film Processing; post-1955 ~ (“Universal” type of Kodacolor Film - see above)
The film was sold without processing charges and was processed in the then, new, C-22 chemicals. In the U.S.A. the C-22 chemicals were sold as complete kits in 1 pint and 1 gallon sizes. Instructions for mixing the chemicals and directions for processing the film were included in each kit. The individual processing baths could also be purchased in larger sizes, possibly to make 3 gallons or larger. The same process was also used for the new Kodak Ektacolor Film, Type “S”, a sheet film balanced for clear flashbulbs, or for daylight with a Wratten No.85C filter. It was very similar to Kodacolor film, but only marketed in a sheet film format.

Kodak Color Film Process C-22 to view a C-22 process wall chart click here:
The Developer was used at 75°F, +/– ½°F, and the other solutions and washes were allowed a 4 degree latitude in temperature, 73°–77°F.
The first three steps were carried out in total darkness.
1. Colour Developer Kodacolor Film 12 minutes
Ektacolor Type S sheet film 14 minutes
If either type of film were exposed to electronic flash lighting, 2 minutes could be added to the development time to increase the contrast of the negatives
2. Stop-Bath 4 minutes
3 Hardener 4 minutes
Remaining steps could be carried out in white light
4. Wash 4 minutes
5. Bleach 6 minutes
6. Wash 4 minutes
7. Fixer 8 minutes
8. Wash 8 minutes
9. Wetting Agent Rinse 1 minute: “Kodak Photo-Flo” solution, as recommended by Kodak, diluted to 4 times the rate specified in the instructions on the label on the bottle.
10. Dry: not over 110°F

The above C-22 process, dating from 1955–56, shows two processing times:

  • Processing Kodacolor roll and 35mm films wound into metal spiral reels, (Nikor), in a 3 Gallon tank, it was necessary to agitate the rack holding the spiral reels continuously for the first 15 seconds of the development and, from then on, at 20 second intervals per minute for a development time of 12 minutes.
  • The Ektacolor sheet films, Type S and later Type L and, from 1962, Ektacolor Professional Type S, were given a development time of 14 minutes, and were agitated for 15 seconds each minute. Nitrogen Burst agitation was 2 seconds each minute, apart from initial agitation by hand of 15 seconds during the first minute.

In 1963, Ektacolor Professional Type S roll film was introduced, the same emulsion as the sheet film on a roll film base. At first available in 120 and 620 rolls, it was joined by a 35mm size in 36 exposure cassettes and long lengths of bulk film a few years later.

About this time, the development time for all C-22 Kodacolor films was increased to 14 minutes, and the agitation rate was decreased to an initial 15 second agitation for the first minute and thereafter once per minute. It was then possible to process Kodacolor, Kodacolor X and Ektacolor Professional Type S roll and 35mm films in the same processing run. The time for the various sheet films remained the same as previous i.e. 14 minutes. By 1965, Kodacolor film was almost obsolete, having been replaced by the then new faster Kodacolor X.

Process C-22 from 1963, with new development times

New Process C-22
The Developer was used at 75°F, +/– ½°F, and the other solutions and washes were allowed a 4 degree latitude in temperature, 73°–77°F.
The first three steps were carried out in total darkness.
1. Colour Developer Kodacolor Film 14 minutes
Kodacolor X Film 14 minutes
Ektacolor Type L 14 minutes
Ektacolor Professional Types S and L 14 minutes
Ektacolor Print Film 12 minutes
Ektacolor Slide Film 17 minutes
Ektacolor ID Copy Film 14 minutes
2. Stop-Bath 4 minutes
3 Hardener 4 minutes
Remaining steps could be carried out in white light
4. Wash 4 minutes
5. Bleach 6 minutes
6. Wash 4 minutes
7. Fixer 8 minutes
8. Wash 8 minutes
9. Wetting Agent Rinse 1 minute: “Kodak Photo-Flo” solution, as recommended by Kodak, diluted to 4 times the rate specified in the instructions on the label on the bottle.
10. Dry: not over 110°F

Notes.

  1. Ektacolor ID Copy film was a special colour negative film used to make identification cards in ID cameras. The camera recorded a portrait image and at the same time a high contrast line copy. The film could also be used to photograph flat copy originals such as charts and advertising layouts. It was available in 35mm, (bulk film), and sheet film.
  2. Ektacolor Print film was for making large size positive transparencies from colour negatives. It was a fairly thick material with a matt diffuser layer built into it. Available in sheet and wide rolls.
  3. Ektacolor Slide film was similar to Ektacolor Print film but was much thinner and had no matt diffuser layer. It was originally used for making small size 35mm transparencies from 35mm colour negatives but could also be used for making large transparencies in much the same way as Ektacolor Print film. Available in 35mm bulk film, sheet film, and to special order, in wide rolls.
  4. Some Kodak (U.K.) and Eastman Kodak (U.S.A.) instruction sheets for C-22, mainly printed in the 1970s, give a development time of 13 minutes for the Ektacolor Professional Films and Kodacolor X film. When using the small kits of C-22 chemicals, the development time had to be increased for each roll of film processed. The small 600ccs (21 Fl. Oz.) had a capacity for 4 rolls of 120 size film or equivalent area for the Developer and Stop Bath. The starting development time was 14 minutes for the first roll, but the development time was increased by 2 minutes per roll from then on, with the last, fourth, roll being developed for 18 minutes. The time in the Stop Bath was 4 minutes for all 4 rolls of film.
    The time was constant for the remaining solutions throughout the life of the kit, and the solutions had twice the processing capacity of the Developer and Stop Bath, 8 120 rolls of film, or equivalent area... Kodak recommended 8 weeks before they needed replacing but I found it was possible to extend this time by at least 4 weeks with no detrimental effects to the quality of the negatives.
    The kit came in two parts. Unit 1 contained the Developer and Stop Bath, and Unit 2 contained the Hardener, Bleach, Fixer, and Photo Flo solution.
    C-22 kits of processing chemicals were available in 600ccs and 2 Litres sizes.
  5. Ektacolor Film Type L was replaced by Ektacolor Professional Type L film at the end of 1963
     

Processing C-22 Film in C-41 Chemistry
The following advice is proferred as a 'last resort' possible solution to developing an old C-22 film if no C-22 processing chemistry is available.

The more modern, but high temperature (100°F), C-41 chemistry (see below) is incompatible with C-22 films, where the highest process temperature was 75°F. The higher C-41 temperature would damage the C-22 film emulsion. It might even strip it off its celluloid backing !

But it might be possisble to use a modified C-41 procedure. The C-41 Bleach and Fixer will work at 75°F as this was the lowest temperature for processing C-41 films; 6½ minutes in each. You could get away without using the Stabilizer. The Wash times might have to be increased by 50%.

The C-41 Development time is 3¼ minutes at 100°F. Working on the old black and white developer rule, where development time has to be doubled for each 10 degrees Fahrenheit reduction in temperature, would suggest 6½ minutes at 90°F, 13 minutes at 80°F, so about 19 minutes at 75°F.

Hence, it might be possible to colour develop a C-22 film in C-41 chemistry, all at 75°F.

1. C-41 Developer 19 minutes
2. Stop-Bath
(2% acetic acid solution)
2 minutes
3. Wash 4 minutes 
4. C-41 Bleach 6½ minutes 
5. Wash 3¼ minutes or maybe 50% longer 
6. C-41 Fixer 6½ minutes 
7. Wash At least 5 minutes 
8. C-41 Stabiliser (not essential)
or wetting agent
about 1½ minutes 
9. Dry: Room temperature, around 20°C

Notes:

  1. The C-41 developer is a different chemical formula to the C-22 developer, as is the Bleach.
  2. There was a Hardener solution in C-22 after the stop bath, which was 25cc of 35% Formalin to 1 litre of water. It might be best to insert this after the Stop Bath for about 3 minutes or so. It also contained Sodium Carbonate, but it will work as a Hardener fairly well without it.
  3. The fog level of old C-22 film (last likely 'develop before' date around 1980) will be very high, which in turn will decrease contrast, and it will be difficult to print the negs.
  4. If a C-41 kit is not available, it should be possible to develop a C-22 (or C-41) colour negative film in black and white chemistry (producing black & white negatives), but with C-22 film the important thing is to keep the process steps below 75°F, or preferably 68°F.

ALTERNATIVELY, try Black & White Processing Chemistry
Colour negative film can be processed to black & white negatives using conventional black & white chemistry.
This website, is run by a gentleman who enjoys processing exposed film found in old cameras. When he finds a colour negative film, he still uses his same black & white chemicals. By then scanning the negatives and using digital processing to enhance the negatives, he frequently finds it possible to obtain reasonable black & white print images.

The above site's owner puts colour films through Kodak HC 110 developer which is a bit like a liquid D-76, though maybe a bit more energetic than D-76. This route is almost certainly better than trying to develop out-dated colour negative film in hopes of achieving colour results, especially if the original colour chemistry is no longer available.

   

KODACOLOR II Film and the FLEXICOLOR Process C-41

A new colour negative film, mainly intended for amateur photographers, was introduced in 1972. Compared with Kodacolor X film, KODACOLOR II film showed higher sharpness together with a micro-fine grain structure. At the time of its introduction, it was not a replacement film for Kodacolor X.

The film was initially intended to fit the new amateur “Kodak Pocket Instamatic “ cameras taking 110 size film, a new format giving a negative size of only 13mmx17mm. The grain structure of the existing Kodacolor X and Ektacolor Professional colour negative films were not fine enough for use in the new ultra small 110 cameras. Following the idea of the original (1962) Instamatic cartridge Type 126 film, 110 films were sold in cartridges for slotting into the Kodak Pocket Instamatic cameras. The ultra small negatives were sharp enough to make enlargements up to 3½x4½inches. Prints much larger than this size showed objectional graininess.

The film was coded as:-

  • C 110 – 12 exposures.
  • C 110 – 20 exposures.

Kodacolor II could be given the same exposure times as Kodacolor X film. The daylight speed was 80 ASA (ISO), exposed without a filter. Photoflood speed was 25 ASA (ISO) with a Kodak No.80B filter. Tungsten speed (3200) was 20 ASA (ISO) with a Kodak 80A filter.

The negatives were suitable for printing onto Kodak Ektacolor 37RC paper.

Kodacolor II film was designed for processing in the new FLEXICOLOR chemistry, also known as “Process C-41”. Flexicolor chemicals were principally intended for machine processors. Kodacolor II film could not be processed in the recently marketed Vericolor chemicals, and Kodacolor II film was not an amateur version of the two Vericolor films.

Hence, in 1972, there were three Kodak colour negative processes:-

  • C–22, for Kodacolor X and the various Ektacolor films.
  • Vericolor Process, for use in the Versamat 145 machine, for Vericolor S and Vericolor L films.
  • Flexicolor i.e. C-41, for Kodacolor II film.

The films and the processes could not be interchanged (but see above for advice re: processing a C-22 film in C-41 chemistry).

Process C – 41 using Flexicolor chemistry
Originally introduced in 1972 as Kodak “Flexicolor” chemicals, by 1975 this process had become the near universally applied colour negative film processing chemistry known as Process C-41.
The following processing procedure was for a tank processing line, the film being transferred by hand from one tank to another. It was also the procedure for small, spiral reel tanks.

Total darkness for first two steps.
Processing Step

Temperature °F

Time (Minutes)
1. First Developer

100 +/– 0.3°F

2. Bleach

75 – 105

Room lights can now be switched on.
3. Wash

75 – 105

4. Fixer

75 – 105

5. Wash

75 – 105

6. Stabilizer

75 – 105

7. Dry

75 - 105°F

Notes.

  1. Eastman Kodak marketed a 1 pint size kit specially for use with small amateur spiral reel tanks in 1973. The kit could process up to 18 size 110 films of 12 exposure, or up to 15 size 110 films of 20 exposure before becoming exhausted. The development time had to be increased for every set of 2 films.
  2. The Bleach temperature could vary between 75°F and 105°F as long as the time was kept to 6½ minutes. Some processing instructions give 95°F to 105°F for a time of 6½ minutes.
  3. As there was no “Stop Bath” or Wash step between the Developer and Bleach, it was very important to drain the spiral reel tank of developer before filling with Bleach, otherwise rapid contamination of the Bleach solution would occur.

For further information, the reader is advised to download the Kodak Booklet entitled "Processing Colour Film". It is available here as a pdf file in a version dated July 1982.

“Rack and Tank” continuous processors using C-41
"
Rack and Tank" processors operated on the principle where sheet film was clipped into large racks and roll and 35 mm film was suspended in groups of 15 or 20 films in rows above the processing tanks. The films were weighted at their bottom ends to keep them vertical as they were lowered into the solutions. Machinery with lifting arms lowered the films into the tanks, lifted them out at the appropriate time, and moved the racks along to the next solution where the same sequence happened. Some of the processors worked almost automatically, apart from the operator loading the film on at one end and another operator unloading the film at the other end after the film had passed through the dryer. While one rack was passing through the processor, another could be loaded and sent on it’s way following the first rack.

Replenishment was generally automatic and the dwell time in each processing tank could be altered to suit each process, (C-22, E-3, E-4, C-41, Agfa Negative, and others including black and white films.). In the trade this type of processor was known as “Dip and Dunk”.

Films to be laoded onto the processor in total darkness
Processing Step

Temperature °F

Time (Minutes)
1. First Developer

100 +/– 0.3°F

2. Bleach

100 +/- 5°F

4mins 20secs
Room lights can now be switched on.
3. Wash

75 – 105

1min and 5secs
4. Fixer

100 +/- 5°F

4mins 20secs
5. Wash

75 – 105

6. Stabilizer

75 – 105

1min and 5secs
7. Dry

75 - 105°F

Notes.

  1. By increasing the temperatures of the Bleach and Fixer to 95 – 105°F, the processing times in these baths could be decreased. The Stabilizer had more latitude with regards to temperature.
  2. The times included the immersion time in the tank and the transfer time to the next solution tank or wash. The allowed maximum transfer time was 30 seconds.
  3. Adequate ventilation over the Stabilizer tank was important as the Stabilizer contained Formaldehyde.

A process cross between the C-41 and the C-22 for Kodacolor II film
The British Journal of Photography for 1975 gives, in the “Formulae” section for Colour Processing, a process which is a cross between C-41 and C-22 for Kodacolor II film. For interest, it is given below.

Films to be laoded into tanks in total darkness
Processing Step

Temperature °F

Time (Minutes)
1. C-41 Developer

100 +/– 0.5°F

2. C-22 Stop Bath

97 -103°F

½
3. Wash

97 -103°F

4. C-22 Bleach

97 -103°F

Room lights can now be switched on, or even earlier, after the Stop Bath.
5. Wash

97 -103°F

6. C-22 Fixer

97 -103°F

4 minutes 20 seconds
7. Wash

97 -103°F

8. C-41 Stabilizer  

9. Dry

75 - 105°F

Notes.

  1. The process follows the same sequence as the C-22 process (see above). The C-22 Hardener was not needed because Kodacolor II film was hardened in manufacture. The C-41 Stabilizer replaced the C-22 “Photo-Flo” rinse as the final bath.

The British Journal comments: “Results with this procedure are identical to those obtained following the official procedure”. Having never printed any negatives processed in this C-41/C-22 sequence Michael Talbert cannot comment on the (print) quality of the negatives.

How the C-41 processing solutions worked

Developer.
Where the silver halide grains in the film are exposed, the developer reduces these to a metallic silver, forming an image.This oxidizes the developer, which in turn combines with the dye couplers to make a dye image exactly at the point where the film has been exposed. The dye couplers are included in the film at manufacture.

The top layer is sensitive to Blue light and forms a Yellow dye where the developer has acted upon it.
The middle layer is sensitive to Green light and forms a Magenta dye where the developer has acted upon it.
The bottom layer is sensitive to Red light and forms a Blue-Green (Cyan), dye where the developer has acted upon it.

Oxidized Colour Developer + Dye Coupler = Dye Image. The developer will only form a dye image where the film is exposed.

The three coloured dye layers together make an opposite colour image to the subject. When printed onto colour printing paper, the colour printing paper (when developed) will again form an “opposite” dye image, reproducing the original colours of the subject. Apart from the contrast in the colour printing paper being higher than a colour negative film, the paper works on exactly the same principle as the negative film.

Bleach.
The Bleach converts the metallic silver in the film, as produced by the developer, into a silver halide. The silver halide is made soluble in the fixing bath so it can be washed out of the film. The Bleach also stops the Developer working on the film, as there is no separate Stop-Bath or Wash step.

Wash.
The wash removes most of the Bleach chemicals, to prevent possible contamination of the Fixer.

Fixer.
In this bath the exposed areas of the film, made up of the silver halide formed in the Bleach, are turned into soluble silver, part of which is removed in the following wash step. Some remains in the Fixer. Also, the Fixer removes the unexposed silver halide which was not used to form the photographic image, therefore not acted upon by the colour developer.

At the end of the fixing time the film consists of coloured dyes plus some soluble silver.

Final Wash.
The silver halide made soluble in the Fixing bath is washed out, leaving the complementary dyes forming an “opposite” colour image on the film.

Stabilizer.
The Stabilizer hardens the emulsions in the film, preparing it for heat drying. The Stabilizer also contains a “Wetting Agent”, which prevents drying marks. It also goes some way to act as an “anti-fade”, to make some of the dyes more light-fast.

Faults.
If the Bleach was to be accidentally left out when processing the film, i.e. processing sequence: Developer, Wash, Fixer, Wash, Stabilizer, the negatives would take on a rather heavily over exposed, slightly opaque appearance. It might be noticed that this processing sequence is very similar to a black and white film developing procedure. With black and white film, the metallic silver formed by the developer makes the image on the film. In a colour negative film, this metallic silver image is only used to generate the complementary dye image, and if the developed silver image was not removed, it would be extremely difficult when printing the negatives to get enough light through them to expose the printing paper.

At the end of processing, if it was discovered that the Bleach had been omitted from the sequence, it would be possible to re-treat the film by washing off most of the Stabilizer and then re-processing, starting with the Bleach bath.

Interestingly if, by error, an exposed sheet of black and white film was to be put through a colour negative processing sequence, it would be completely blank at the end of processing. It would be be a clear sheet of film ! The colour developer would have acted upon it, making a black and white negative image but, since there would be (of course) no colour couplers in the film, the (colour) developer would be unable to also produce a coloured dye image. When the b&w film subsequently went into the Bleach bath, all of its metallic silver would be converted into silver halide, exactly as a regular colour film.

The fixer would then work exactly as with a colour film (see above) and so, following its use and subsequent wash, all the soluble silver would be removed, including the exposed black silver image, being the black and white negative image formed by the colour developer. But of course, since no coloured dye images were able to also be formed buy the developer, the total negative image would be removed and the result ? ...... a sheet of blank film !


EKTACOLOR Colour Negative Film

Kodak Ektacolor Film Type B


Kodak Ektacolor Type B Film was first announced by Eastman Kodak Company in 1947 but the material was not put on sale until 1949. It was a colour negative sheet film balanced for exposure with 3200°K lamps and designed for processing by the user. The film Sizes available in 1949 were: 4 x 5ins, 5 x 7ins, and 8 x 10ins.

It was the first colour negative film in the world to incorporate coloured coupler masking. The processed negatives had an overall orange cast. The orange mask eliminated the effects of the overlapping absorbtions of the magenta and cyan dyes.

Exposure
The Eastman Kodak Data sheet states the exposure index for tungsten light (3200°K) as 8 ASA (now ISO). This was for an exposure time of around 1 second. Because of the reciprocity failure of the emulsion layers of the film the correction for a 120 second exposure was around a two stop increase over the “normal” exposure of 1 second at 8 ISO.

Approximate exposure times and speeds for 1 second to 120 seconds:
1 second 8 ISO
5 seconds 6 ISO
60 seconds 4 ISO
120 seconds 2 ISO plus a CC-10R filter.
CC-10R refers to a Kodak Colour Compensating filter of 10 Red strength. It was used over the camera lens for exposures of 120 seconds.

The film could also be exposed with Clear flashbulbs. Guide numbers were suggested in the Kodak Data sheet and a compensating filter was recommended for exposure with clear flash to correct the colour balance. This was stated on the supplementary exposure data card packed with each box of film. It is most likely to have been a Kodak Wratten No. 81EF filter.

Also stated on the supplementary data card was the filter recommended for daylight exposures, possibly Kodak Wratten No. 85B, using a film speed of 5 ISO. I can find no mention of the shortest possible exposure time which could be used without incurring any colour reproduction errors in the resulting negatives that could not be corrected in the printing operation.

EKTACOLOR Type B Processing Kit

In 1949 an Ektacolor processing kit was available specifically designed for processing Ektacolor Type B film. It consisted of four chemical solutions to be made up with water – Colour Developer, Stop-Bath, Hardener-Fixer (a combined bath) and Bleach.

Originally, the working temperature of the solutions and washes was 68°F, but it was found later (1950) that the film could be processed at 75°F with a correspondingly shorter total processing time.

A possible processing procedure for Ektacolor Type B film from 1949 may have been:

1. Colour Developer
2. Stop-Bath
3. Wash (protecting the hardener-fixer from stop-bath contamination)
4. Hardener-Fixer
The remaining steps can be carried out in white light
5. Wash
7. Bleach
8. Wash
9. Hardener-Fixer (the same bath as in step 4. The hardener-fixer bath was used twice)
10. Wash
11. Wetting Agent. Rinse in diluted Kodak Photo-Flo solution (optional).

Ektacolor processing from around 1956 ~ Process B-41.
A second processing procedure dates from around 1956 or slightly earlier. This second procedure is almost identical to the C-22 process (see above) and was known as Process B-41 (From “Photographic Chemistry” by George T. Eaton.)
In this process, the Hardener and Fixer were separate solutions and the last bath was “user make-up” and, presumably, not included in the kit of chemicals. The Hardener in this procedure contained formaldehyde.

1. Colour Developer
2. Stop-Bath
3. Hardener
The remaining steps can be carried out in white light
4. Wash
5. Bleach
7. Wash
8. Fixer
9. Wash
10. Wetting Agent. Rinse in diluted Kodak Photo-Flo solution plus 3/4oz Kodak Formaldehyde per gallon. (Strength of Kodak's formaldehyde solution is not known).

Ektacolor Print Film, introduced in 1950, was also designed to be processed in the Ektacolor Processing Kit or the later Kodak Colour Film Processing Chemicals, C-22. The two processes did not produce matching transparencies, but the differences in colour balance were small and could be easily corrected with Kodak Colour Compensating Filters.

As the baths and wash temperature was similar to Process C-22, it is very likely that the timings for the individual steps were the same.

In 1958, Ektacolor Type B film was replaced by the faster “Ektacolor Type L” film for Long exposures from 1/5 second (25 ISO) to 60 seconds (10 ISO) with 3200°K lamps. The previous B-41 process became obsolete and from then on process C-22 was the standard process for all Kodak still colour negative films and Kodak Ektacolor Print film.

     

EKTACOLOR Printing

Black and White Prints
Because processed Ektacolor negatives had a strong overall orange cast, difficulty was experienced in judging the negatives for correct exposure. Black and white proof prints could be made on Kodak Ektacolor BW Proof paper to facilitate choosing the best negatives for printing. Kodak Ektacolor BW Proof paper is mentioned in the Data sheet for Ektacolor Type B film, (1949) but it is not clear if the paper was panchromatic in sensitivity. It is said to be “specially sensitized to give proper tonal values in prints made from negatives containing color couplers.”

By 1956 it is not mentioned in the Data sheet for Ektacolor Type B film and “Kodabromide Grade 3 “ is recommended for making black and white prints in another section of “Kodak Color Films” data book of 1956.

Colour Prints
The film was originally designed to be printed onto Eastman Kodak Panchromatic Matrix film to make three, (red, green and blue), matrices suitable for use with the Kodak Dye Transfer Process. This eliminated the work of making three colour separation negatives direct from the subject. Ektacolor Type B film negatives were, in effect, three separation negatives in one.

Ektacolor Print Film
This material was first made available by Eastman Kodak in 1950, for making large display transparencies from Ektacolor negatives. It could be exposed in black and white enlargers equipped with filter draws using Kodak colour compensating filters (or later, from around 1957, Kodak colour printing filters,) for colour balance corrections.
To view a picture of box of Ektacolor Print Film, click here.

It might also have been possible to print a small size Ektacolor Type B sheet film negative onto Kodacolor paper using the printing machines at the Eastman Kodak laboratories where prints were being made from Kodacolor roll films (see “Kodacolor”, above). However, I have no evidence of this ever being done and it could be that the printing machines used for Kodacolor roll film were not set up for any other kind of film than Kodacolor.

Kodak Color Print Material Type C (see above, under Kodacolor paper)
When Eastman Kodak introduced a multi-layer colour printing paper for sale to the general (U.S) public in 1955, colour prints could be made from Ektacolor negatives using the same equipment and filters as for printing onto Kodak Ektacolor Print Film.

Printing Paper by other Manufacturers
In the late 1950s it was very likely that attempts were made at printing Ektacolor Type B and Kodacolor film negatives onto a European make of colour printing paper, such as Agfacolor CNIII paper or Agfacolor CHIII (Normal and Hard grades). At that time, only photographers who had attended a course of instruction in the use of Agfacolor materials at an “Agfacolor School” were permitted to purchase these papers and chemicals.

Agfacolor CNIII and CHIII papers were balanced for unmasked colour negative materials, such as Agfacolor negative films “K” and “T”. The orange mask present in an Ektacolor negative would have caused problems when printing onto a paper balanced for unmasked negatives. Very high magenta and cyan filter corrections would have been necessary to achieve a neutral balance. Because of the high filtration necessary, prints may have shown colour mis-matches between highlight and shadow, such as highlights too yellow and shadows too blue.

Other colour printing papers available at that time, all balanced for unmasked colour negatives include: Gevacolor, (Belgium), Ferraniacolor (Italy), Telcolor (Switzerland), and papers specifically designed for amateur colour printing, Pakolor, Synthacolor, and Raycolor. (All U.K. made).

ICI colour negative film possessed a colour correction mask similar to Ektacolor Type B film. ICI colour negative film could be obtained for a time in the 1950s, principally by the professional user. Because of the colour correction mask in ICI colour film, the corresponding ICI colour printing paper may have been more suitable for printing with Ektacolor and Kodacolor negatives.

Kodak Ektacolor Film Type L

By 1958 Ektacolor Film Type B had been replaced by Ektacolor Type L, a new faster film for long exposures in tungsten light (3200°K). The film was rated at 16 ASA (ISO) for a 5 second exposure. The film was for making colour negatives at long exposure times.
To view a picture of box of Type L film, click here.

The 1958 instruction sheet, packed with the film, recommends exposures from 1/5th second to 60 seconds under 3200°K lamps.

A trial exposure meter reading was taken with the exposure meter set at 16 ASA. If the calculated exposure was much more or much less than 5 seconds (the length of time for 16 ASA), the meter was set at the film speed in the table below nearest to the calculated exposure and another exposure reading was taken.

Exposure

Exposure Time Film Speed in ASA
1/5th Second 25 ASA
1 Second 20 ASA
5 Seconds 16 ASA
30 Seconds 10 ASA
60 Seconds 10ASA

A Kodak Wratten 81A filter (yellow) corrected the colour balance of the film for use in photoflood lighting, converting 3200K to 3400K, for a 5 second exposure at 12 ASA.

The film was rated at 20 ASA for daylight exposures at 1/5 second, with a Kodak Wratten 85B filter (yellow). For exposures shorter than 1/5 second in daylight it was preferable to use Ektacolor Film Type S.

In 1958 Ektacolor Film Type L was available in sheet film sizes (inches) of : 2¼" x 3¼", 3¼" x 4¼", 4" x 5", 5" x 7", 8" x 10".

The emulsion number found printed on the side of each box of film was also embossed on the code notched edge of each sheet of film excepting the 2¼" x 3¼" inch size.

Kodak Ektacolor Type L film was replaced by Kodak Ektacolor Professional Type L film in 1963.
To view a picture of box of Professional Type L film, click here.

Kodak Ektacolor Film Type S

Ektacolor Film Type S was a sheet film colour negative material introduced by Eastman Kodak in 1956 balanced for exposures with clear flashbulbs (3800°K – 4000°K), at 32 ASA (ISO).

Daylight exposures were made with a Kodak Wratten filter 85C (bluish) with an exposure rating of 25 ASA. The film was very similar to the then new Kodacolor roll film, and the daylight exposure guides mentioned in the data sheets for either film were identical.

Exposure

In 1956, Kodak Ektacolor film type S was designed for exposures of 1/25 second or shorter. By 1959, the maximum length of exposure time had been increased to 1/10th second. Exposures longer than 1/10th second would have caused errors in the colour balance of the film which could not have been corrected in printing.

The exposure for an average subject in bright sunlight was 1/50th second at f/11.
Exposures to photoflood lighting: Kodak Wratten filter 82A (bluish) at 20 ASA.
Exposures to tungsten lamps (3200°K): Kodak Wratten filter 82C (bluish) at 16 ASA.

In 1956, the sheet film sizes available were the same as Ektacolor film type L.

By the late 1950s, Ektacolor Film Type S was available in the U.S.A. to professional users in 35mm and other widths. Supplied in long rolls, it was for use in school, identification, and portrait photography. This bulk roll film version was known as “Kodak Ektacolor Film” without a type designation.

By 1961, the same film was on sale in the U.K. to approved professional customers in 35mm bulk film format. The Kodak Professional Catalogue for July 1961 lists long lengths of 99 feet, 200 feet, and 400 feet bulk film. The film was said to have the same characteristics as Kodacolor film and, presumably, the same speed – 32 ASA (ISO).

Kodak Ektacolor Type S Film was replaced by Ektacolor Professional Type S Film in 1962.
To view a picture of box of Professional Type S film, click here.

     

Kodak Ektacolor Professional Film Type S ~ short exposure

In 1962, a new version of Kodak Ektacolor Type S film was marketed for professional photographers.
Ektacolor Professional Type S colour negative sheet film had a film speed of 80 ASA (ISO), and was balanced for daylight, blue flash bulbs and electronic flash. The average exposure to bright sunlight was 1/100 second at F/16, and exposures longer than 1/10 second were not recommended.
To view a picture of a box of Ektacolor Professional Color Negative Film Type S, click here.

Ektacolor Professional Film Type S was very similar, but not identical, to Kodacolor X film. While Ektacolor Professional film was aimed at the professional market, Kodacolor X was principally an amateur photographer’s colour negative film, balanced for clear flash illumination and designed to be printed by photofinishers making en-prints and moderate sized enlargements. Ektacolor Professional film was often processed and printed by the photographer in his own darkroom, using enlargers with a filter drawer or colour head. Correctly exposed Ektacolor Professional Type S negatives generally required yellow and magenta filters for printing, whereas, Kodacolor X negatives, being slightly yellower, or redder in colour than an Ektacolor negative, frequently required the use of cyan filters to balance a colour print.

If Kodacolor X film was exposed to daylight with a Kodak No. 85C filter over the lens, the resulting negatives were very similar in colour balance to Ektacolor Professional film Type S negatives and could be printed with yellow and magenta filters.

As it was possible that amateur photographers might expose their Kodacolor X film negatives to widely differing lighting conditions, the photofinishers who printed the resulting negatives compensated for the variations in colour temperature by means of their automatic colour printing machines. To assist the photofinishers in coping with this range of variation, Kodacolor X film, and the earlier Kodacolor film, were balanced for 3800°K, (clear flash bulbs), approximately mid way between daylight and tungsten illumination.

Prints made on automatic colour printing machines may have had slight colour mis-matches regarding highlight to shadow differences, (magenta highlights, green shadows as an example), but generally Kodacolor X and Kodacolor films were capable of giving a pleasing balance with most subjects. As Ektacolor Professional Film was balanced for daylight, it was to be expected that a slightly higher degree of colour accuracy was obtainable with subjects exposed in daylight conditions compared with the Kodacolor films. However differences were slight and a lot depended on the quality of the final print.

In early 1963, a 120 size roll film Ektacolor Professional Type S Film was made available.
To view a picture of box of 120 Ektacolor Professional Type S film, as manufactured around 1974, click here.
It carried a warning on the yellow box it was packed in: "Not for use in simple, non-adjustable, cameras”. The 120 size rolls were manufactured in the U.S.A., but were finished and packed in the U.K.

Like the previous “Kodak Ektacolor Film”, (see above), the Type S professional emulsion was also made in 35mm size and supplied in long rolls. The Kodak Professional Catalogue for 1964, (for the U.K.) lists Ektacolor Professional Film Type S in 120 rolls, coded “CPS 120” and bulk 35mm film in 100 ft. and 400 ft. lengths.

In 1966, the speed of all Kodak camera colour negative films were increased by 1/3 of a stop, making Ektacolor Professional Film Type S the fastest colour negative film in the world at 100 ASA (ISO). In the U.K., by 1970, an additional size of 70mm film was made available in 100ft lengths. Two years later, another addition was 35mm size film in 36 exposure cassettes. 220 size film was listed in the Kodak U.K. Professional catalogue by 1971. In the U.S.A., 220 and 620 size rollfilms were mentioned in the data sheet for Type S Professional Film in October 1964.

     

Kodak Ektacolor Professional Film Type L ~ long exposure

Near the end of 1963, Eastman-Kodak introduced a faster long exposure colour negative film to replace Kodak Ektacolor film Type L. (see above) It was designed for exposures in tungsten lighting at times from 1/10 second to 60 seconds.

Like the previous Ektacolor Type L film, the speed of the film depended upon the exposure, and the exposure was calculated in exactly the same manner as with Ektacolor Type L film.

Exposure Time Effective Speed
1/10 Second 80 ASA or ISO
1 Second 64 ASA
5 Seconds 50 ASA
30 Seconds 25 ASA
60 Seconds 25 ASA

Daylight exposures were possible at 1/10 second with a Wratten 85 (yellowish) filter, and exposures under Photoflood illumination could be made using a Wratten 81A (yellowish) filter at 1 second. Both filters cut the film speed to 50 ASA (ISO).

Although not mentioned in the data sheets or the instruction leaflets packed in the film boxes, it was also possible to expose Ektacolor Professional film Type L for exposures as long as 2 minutes. In the Kodak Color Data book “Applied Color Photography Indoors” (E 76), the section on “exposure”, describes that a 2 minute exposure can be made at a speed of 16 ASA through a CC 10R filter – this is a Colour Compensating filter of 10 Red density. This information is similar to the longest exposure that can be made on Ektacolor Type B film using a film speed of 2 ASA. (see above)

Negatives made on Ektacolor Professional film Type L exhibited slightly higher contrast than negatives made on the Type S professional film.

The author remembers exposing some sheets of 5 x 4in. Professional Type L film in daylight conditions without a compensating filter to make use of this contrast increase. The negatives possessed a red cast, but on printing them on Agfacolor MCN III type 7 paper, there was only a slight miss match of colour balance (red shadows, cyan highlights).

In November 1963, Ektacolor Professional film Type L was made in sheet film sizes of 2¼" x 3¼", 3¼" x 4¼", 4" x 5", 5" x 7", 8" x 10" and 11" x 14" (all inch sizes). There was also a “half plate” size (4¾" x 6½") mainly for the U.K. market.

In 1966, the film speed was increased to 100 ASA for 1/10 second exposure and all the ASA speeds in the table above increased by 1/3 of a stop.

Ektacolor Professional film Type L was never made in roll film or 35 mm sizes, and was replaced by Vericolor Professional film 4108, Type L in 1975.

     

Processing of Ektacolor Professional and Ektacolor Type S and L films

All Ektacolor and Ektacolor Professional films, not Ektacolor Type B film, were processed in Kodak Color Film Processing chemicals, Process C-22. In the U.S.A., a “Kodak Color Processing Kit, Process C-22” was available in a 1 gallon size. In the U.K. kits of C-22 chemicals were sold in 600ccs, and 2 litre sizes containing the five chemical baths and the Photo-Flo solution for the final rinse. Larger sizes, up to 100 litres, were available in individual chemical packings.

When using the 600ccs kit, the Developer and Stop-bath had to be replaced after every four rolls of 120 size film developed. The development time, starting at 14 minutes, was increased by 2 minutes for every 120 size film put through the developer, and thus varied from 14 minutes for the first roll to 20 minutes for the last. The Stop-bath time was not increased nor were any of the other solution timings for the life of the kit. The Hardener, Bleach, Fixer and Photo-Flo rinse, had twice the capacity of the Developer and Stop-bath.

From the author’s experience of processing Ektacolor and Kodacolor films in many of the 600 ccs kits, the Stop-bath was frequently overworked and it was far better to make up the last solution, the Photo-Flo rinse, separately for each processing session. This gave much cleaner negatives ! But provided one worked methodically, and was very careful not to contaminate one solution with another, these small sized kits could provide negatives of a very high quality.

From 1975, the four solution Process C-41 replaced Process C-22 giving a faster total time of 24½ minutes

     

Storage of unexposed Ektacolor and Ektacolor Professional Films, sheet, roll, bulk and 35mm

Since Ektacolor Type B film was introduced in 1949, Eastman Kodak have recommended refrigerated storage for all types of Ektacolor film at 55°F (12.8°C) or lower. Better still, freezing the sealed, unexposed film in a freezing unit would delay the changes in the film’s characteristics, such as speed and colour balance, for a very long time. But even at this low temperature, the film was likely to change very slowly and it was always advisable to use the film before the expiry date stamped on the box.

Kodacolor film and Kodacolor X film did not require refrigerated storage.

     

Kodak Vericolor Films

Kodak Vericolor colour negative films were introduced in the U.S.A. in 1970. They were intended for rapid processing in the Kodak Versamat Model 145 machine, the total dry to dry time being around one fifth of the (then) C-22 wet processing time for Kodacolor and Ektacolor films. Vericolor film had it’s own chemical baths, and could not be processed in C-22 chemicals. The films were similar to the Ektacolor Professional films at that time.

Types of Vericolor Film available in the U.S.A. in 1972

  • Vericolor Type S film. 120,620, and 220 rolls in packs of 5 rolls. 35mm, 46 mm, 70mm and 3½inch bulk rolls in mainly 100foot lengths. Sheet film. The film was coded “VS”. This film corresponded to Ektacolor Professional film Type S in speed, grain size, and definition.
  • Vericolor Type L film. 120 rolls in packs of 5 rolls. Sheet film. This film was coded “VL”. The 120 roll film was a new product. Kodak Ektacolor Professional Type L film was never made in a 120 size roll film. Vericolor Type L film corresponded to Ektacolor Professional Type L film in speed, grain size, and definition.

Type S and Type L sheet film were coated on a polyester base. In the U.S. A. both types of sheet film were available in 4x5inch and 5x7inch formats (10 sheet boxes), designated, Vericolor Type S 4105 and Vericolor Type L 4106.

Types of Vericolor Film available in the UK in 1972

  • Vericolor Type S film was available in 120 and 220 roll film, (5 roll packs), 35mm bulk film, and 4x5inch sheet film (10 sheets).
  • Vericolor Type L film was available in 120 roll film, (5 roll packs), and 4x5inch sheet film.(10 sheets)

Processing
The “Kodak Versamat Color Processor Model 145” was available to colour laboratories who wished to process and print Vericolor films. As far as Michael Talbert knows, by 1972 only two laboratories in the U.K. were operating a service for processing Vericolor films. One was F.S.Hare, and the other was P&P.F.James, of Houndslow.

Approximate bath sequence of the processing steps:

  1. Hardener
  2. Neutraliser
  3. Colour Developer
  4. Stop-Fix
  5. Wash
  6. Bleach
  7. Wash
  8. Fixer
  9. Final Wash
  10. Wetting Agent Rinse (or Hardening bath, see note below)

Notes.

  1. The processing baths and wash water temperature was 100°F.
  2. There was no “Stabilizer “ bath although the British Journal of Photography Annual for 1972 in the “Epitome of Progress” section (Colour Photography), mentions a “Hardening Bath” as the final bath. The Annual also states that the process starts with a “Pre-Hardener”. The Eastman – Kodak catalog for 1973 lists the Vericolor chemicals in order of processing sequence, and starts with “Kodak Vericolor Hardener and Replenisher” . This is possibly what the B.J. Annual meant by “Pre-Hardener”. The equivalent U.K.” Kodak Professional and Graphic Arts” price list for 1973 lists the same chemicals in order of processing sequence, starting with “Vericolor Hardener”. There is no mention of a Hardener or Stabilizer as the final bath in either catalogue, but it is quite likely that the last bath was a wetting agent rinse, similar to the C-22 Process.
  3. The total processing time was about 11minutes, dry to dry.

The Versamat 145 machine could process sheet film, roll film and 35mm film working at a speed of 3feet per minute. Kodak manufactured other types of Versamat machines, but the 145 model was the only one capable of processing Vericolor films.

The chemicals were obtainable in packs to make up 25gallons of each solution, except for the fixer. Kodak “Color Film Liquid Fixer”, was used for the process, this fixer being common to the C-22, E3 and E4 processes. The Colour developer was made up of Developer Replenisher and Developer Starter. To make the working solution, the Starter was mixed with the Replenisher and the working strength developer solution was then replenished with the developer replenisher alone.

At the time Vericolor films were marketed, very few colour laboratories in the U.K. would consider purchasing a Versamat machine to process Vericolor films alongside the then, current, Kodacolor and Ektacolor films. It was known that the Flexicolor process (C-41 process), with new amateur and professional films would, at some stage, replace the existing C-22 films and process. Indeed, Kodacolor II film was already on the market. Thus, it was hardly worth while investing in a process which would become obsolete in another two or three years time, although it was pointed out at the time that the Versamat machines could be modified to take the new Flexicolor chemistry. The cost of a Versamat Color Processor Model 145 in 1973 was over £10,000. This included three service calls and free maintenance for one year.

Kodak Vericolor II Professional films

Vericolor Type S and Type L films were replaced by Vericolor II Professional films, Type S and Type L in 1974. By 1975, the range of Kodak Vericolor II Professional films were gradually replacing Ektacolor Professional films for camera use.


KODACOLOR ~ Making the Print; from 1942

Prior to marketing Kodacolor Film in its various roll film sizes, a method had to be devised of printing thousands of small colour pictures per day from colour negatives. Eastman Kodak had already started a colour print service for making colour prints from Kodachrome transparencies. With regard to correcting the colour balance of the print, printing from a colour transparency is a simpler task than if the same print is to be made from a colour negative. Colour casts on transparency films can be easily seen by the printer, and a correction can be made before printing. However, it is much more difficult to see a colour cast on a colour negative, because the negative appears in “reversed “ colours.

Kodak 1599 Printers
The first printer exclusively designed for making colour prints from Kodacolor negative films was the Kodak 1599 colour printer.

The 1599 printers were equipped with triple negative carriers, and required the negatives to be cut into strips before printing, presumably into strips of 3 or 4 depending on the number of exposures per roll film.The triple negative carriers allowed the operator to change one negative while another two were being exposed to the paper. Three prints of equal size were printed across an 11 inches wide roll of paper in parallel rows. After processing, and before the prints were cut and separated into their individual orders, they were examined by an experienced operator, and any prints not up to standard were marked with a correction and the negatives were returned for re-prints.

Eastman Kodak designed equipment for slitting and cutting the rolls of exposed paper into 3½ in wide prints.

The Eastman Kodak 1599 printer was not made available to any other photofinishing companies, possibly because it was complicated to set up, and was designed to print only from Kodacolor negatives and only onto Kodak colour printing paper (though no doubt it could have been used with other makes of film and colour paper with appropriate settings).

In 1949, Eastman Kodak introduced Ektacolor Type B sheet film, and it might have been possible to print small size sheet film negatives using 1599 printers onto Kodak colour paper. I have no evidence of this ever being done and it is possible that the 1599 printer was not set up for any other kind of film than Kodacolor.

The colour negative was exposed through individual red, green and blue filters, (three separate exposures). The exposures were each the same length of time due to the fact that the final print would show a change in colour if one of the exposures varied in time compared to the other two. At that time, there was no way of altering the exposure time to compensate for any colour casts on the negative film. The intensity of the printing light was adjusted automatically by light sensitive photocells to give the correct exposure to compensate for underexposed negatives, or overexposed negatives. Thus the total time of the three exposures was the same for a thin, underexposed, negative as it was for a thick, overexposed, negative.

This method of making three exposures was known as “Tri-Color Printing”.

There seems to be very little written information on how Eastman Kodak operated their printers in those early days but (below) I try to show how there may have been three distinct methods.

First Method (as from 1942)
After processing the film to a colour negative, each frame of the roll was examined by a colour technician who then decided what colour correction filters to place in the printer (maybe in a filter draw?) to correct the cast on the negative. It is very likely that the photographer’s negative to be printed was compared with a “standard” negative, which could be printed to a perfect print.

Very simply, by way of example, say the negative to be printed was evaluated to have a green cast. Without correction, the resulting print would look magenta. Therefore a magenta filter would have to be placed in the printer to remove the colour cast. Remember that the green exposure cannot be altered to correct for the colour cast.

Estimating colour casts on every single negative must have taken up much time. Therefore, it was decided later to judge only one negative per roll of film for colour casts, and then print the whole roll using the same filter correction.

One drawback with this system was that the individual frames on the same roll of film may not all have been taken in the same lighting conditions, and hence the negatives may have had different colour casts.

Second Method
A second method of printing Kodacolor roll films was introduced to bring greater automation to the whole procedure, possibly with a great saving of time.

All roll films were made slightly longer than was necessary for the standard number of exposures per roll, irrespective of the size of film. Photographers were advised not to expose or fog this part of the film. Before processing to a colour negative, this extra portion of film was exposed by the laboratory to a standard reference colour patch. After processing the film, and before printing, the colour densities on this reference patch were measured and evaluated. Each negative was then punched with a series of very small holes along the extreme edge of the film corresponding to the results of the colour density measurements. The size and location of the small holes automatically regulated the various colour printing filters to correct for the colour cast(s) of the negative being printed. This method, as presumably the first method, took into account the emulsion deviations of the various batches of Kodacolor film.

Third Method
As long ago as 1938, two research workers at Kodak Limited, Harrow, had shown that the colours of an average daylight scene will integrate to grey. If a transparency of an outdoor subject, with no bias of any particular colour in that subject, is placed in a slide projector, and a diffuser of neutral colour is placed in front of the lens, no image will be formed on the screen but the colour of the light reaching the screen will be grey, or certainly close to grey.

By around the mid-1940s, the Kodak 1599 printer was sufficiently advanced to incorporate photo-electric cells to automatically compensate for colour casts of Kodacolor negatives. In common with other automatic colour printers, when the settings on the 1599 colour printer had been adjusted so that the printer produced a good print from a 'standard' test negative exposed to an average outdoor subject with no colour bias, the vast majority of all subsequent negatives would print satisfactorily, or nearly so.

The photo-electric cells measured the light transmitted from the negative for each of the red, green, and blue exposures and terminated each exposure when the amount of colour striking the printing paper (time x intensity) was the same as was expected from the 'standard' test negative. This was done by varying the intensity of the light behind each filter rather than varying the time of exposure; the exposure time was kept constant so as to not upset the reciprocity characteristics of the paper. The exposure intensity of the light behind each filter varied automatically according to the colour cast(s) of the negative being printed, but as long as the total intensity of each of the three light colour exposures remained the same as the total intensity of each colour as required by a 'standard' negative, a good print was likely to result.

This method of assuming customer negatives would integrate to grey without a colour bias, was used for printing Kodacolor negatives on the 1599 printers for around 20 years.

KODACOLOR Paper

When Eastman Kodak began to sell Kodacolor Film in various roll film sizes to the general public in March 1942, all processing and printing of the new film was done internally at Eastman Kodak, Rochester, N.Y.

Kodacolor Type I paper
The first type of colour printing paper used for Kodacolor prints was called Kodacolor Type I paper (= Type 1). It was a multi-layer material, with the red sensitive emulsion containing the cyan dye coupler, coated next to the paper base. On this was coated the green sensitive layer, with the magenta dye coupler. A yellow filter layer followed this, and the top layer was sensitive to blue light, containing the yellow dye coupler. The yellow filter layer was to prevent any blue light reaching the bottom two layers, which were both sensitive to blue light. The red, green, and blue sensitive emulsion layer arrangement was identical to the early type of Agfacolor paper, CN111, and the colour sensitivity of the paper, like CN111, was balanced for unmasked colour negatives, the speed of each layer being almost equal.

The emulsions were coated onto a fibre base support, with an unglazed gloss surface. The contrast was normal, or medium. The equivalent Kodak black and white papers manufactured at that time were (in the U.S.A.) Kodabrom F2 white, glossy, smooth, normal, and (in the U.K.) Bromide BG2, Nikko *(see footnote, end of page) medium. The base weight of Kodacolor paper was Medium, in between single and double weight.

With Kodacolor Type 1 paper, the magenta dye faded rapidly in the processed prints, causing the white borders and eventually the image aitself, to turn yellow. The magenta dye coupler was much improved in later versions of Kodak colour printing papers.

Kodacolor Type II paper was introduced in 1950. It was very similar to Type I, but had an ultra violet (UV) absorbing layer above the emulsion layers.

Kodacolor Type III paper superseded Type II in 1952 and was used for enlargements and prints from Kodacolor internegatives. The paper contained a new magenta coupler.

Kodacolor III Type 1348 paper
The last version of Kodacolor paper was known as Kodacolor III Type 1348. This paper was first manufactured in 1954. The layers on this paper were coated in reverse order, the red sensitive layer now coated on top, the blue sensitive layer next to the base. There was no yellow filter layer, but the UV absorbing layer was placed in between the red sensitive and green sensitive emulsion layers.

This new arrangement of layer order improved the visual sharpness of the print. As the red sensitive, cyan dye forming layer was now on top, this now became the sharpest layer. It had been noticed as long ago as 1928, that the cyan dye layer provided most of the apparent sharpness of a tri-pack material, partly because it often forms the heaviest dye deposit.

There is some doubt concerning the information on the two types of Kodacolor Type III papers i.e. Type III and Type III 1348. In the literature, other sources suggest that it was Kodacolor Type III paper (in 1952) that was made with the reverse order of sensitive layers. My own research has failed to confirm this, though there was a change made to Kodacolor film in 1949 that may be at the root of this confusion. In 1949, a new version of Kodacolor film was marketed incorporating an orange/red masking layer to improve the colour rendering of prints. Prior to this, the two earlier films were of the unmasked variety, though the second type included a contrast mask in black and white.

It is probable that, in 1949, Eastman-Kodak changed the layer sensitivity of its Kodacolor paper, increasing the speed of the blue sensitive layers, to compensate for the high density of the orange masking layer in the new Kodacolor film. An orange masked Kodacolor negative printed onto a paper designed for unmasked colour negatives would have otherwise needed a long blue exposure to prevent a strong blue/cyan cast caused by the mask. However, I can find no firm evidence that Eastman-Kodak actually did change the layer sensitivity of the paper at that time.

Eastman-Kodak knew that the green and blue layers would have to be increased in speed (sensitivity) because of the orange mask as long ago as 1946, as was mentioned in the P.S.A. Journal (Photographic Society of America), February 1947, where Hanson and Vittum described the forthcoming masking system and how it was to work for Kodacolor ("Colored Dye-Forming Couplers In Subtractive Color Photography”. It was presented at the PSA Convention at Rochester N.Y. in November 2nd, 1946. It became Eastman-Kodak communication No. 1106).

The above types of Kodacolor papers were used internally by Eastman-Kodak for prints and enlargements in their own laboratories and were never sold to any other photo finishers or photographers. During 1954, the US Supreme Court ruled that the Eastman Kodak Company were required to release technical information on the printing and processing of Kodacolor films and papers to colour processing laboratories and photofinishers in the USA who wanted to handle the processing and printing of Kodacolor film.

Kodak Color Print Material, Type C
As from 1955, Kodak colour printing papers, and the processing chemistry for them, were made available for purchase to anyone in the U.S.A. Also during that year, Eastman Kodak introduced 'Kodak Color Print Material, Type C', their first colour printing paper to be put on sale to the general public. It included a new yellow coupler and increased UV absorption levels.

     

This image illustrates the ageing differences between early Kodak (top print) and Agfa (two lower prints) colour printing processes.

The Kodacolor print dates from 1952 and the Agfacolors date from 1954.

On the back of the Kodacolor print it says:
"This is a Kodacolor Print made by Eastman Kodak Company, T.M. REGIS. PAT. OFF. Week of August 25, 1952".
The film the picture was taken on would have been Kodacolor Daylight Type rated at 25 ASA (ISO) with the orange colour correcting mask incorporated. The printing paper (see descriptions above) would have been either Kodacolor Type II or Kodacolor Type III. As far as is known, the Type III material was introduced in 1952.

The two Agfacolor prints were made in 1954. They are most likely to have been printed on Agfacolor CN III paper. They have “Agfa” printed faintly on the back at various intervals. The film the pictures were taken on would have been Agfacolor “CNT” film for Daylight rated at 10 to 12ASA (ISO) producing an unmasked colour negative.

The difference between the colour balance of the Kodak and Agfa prints is quite considerable. The Kodacolor print suffers from “Thermal Yellowing” very badly, a fault inherent in the four early Kodacolor papers.

Thermal Yellowing was caused by heat and humidity reacting with the dyes in the print. It was also caused by the unused colour couplers left in the emulsion layers reacting with the print dyes, mainly the magenta coupler. For instance, in this case, where the colour Magenta is not generated by colour development, there are unused colour couplers left in the emulsion after processing the print. Very early Kodacolor prints turned green as the magenta dye faded faster than the other dyes. Thermal Yellowing also caused the borders of the print to turn yellow rapidly.

This Kodacolor print does retain some traces of pink in the flowers on the left and green in the lawn on the right. It is said that there are now no Kodacolor prints made between 1942 and 1954 which remain in a reasonable condition.

“Kodak Color Print Material Type C” (introduced in 1955), brought about a marked improvement in Thermal Yellowing but the cyan and yellow dyes in Kodak prints made in the mid to late 1950s faded quickly, giving the prints a magenta cast. Much the same could be said about Agfacolor prints made during the same period. Very generally, with prints made between 1955 and 1959, Kodak colour prints now look magenta, while Agfacolor prints now look red. There are exceptions, depending on how and where the prints are stored.

Kodak Ektacolor papers introduced from 1958 to 1965 resulted in prints with much improved dye stability, even greens, and Thermal Yellowing was virtually eliminated. It is the author’s opinion that the equivalent Agfacolor papers were less stable, and that Agfacolor MCN III Type 4, introduced in 1972, was the first Agfacolor paper to approach the dye stability of Kodak’s Ektacolor papers.

     

KODACOLOR Home Processing

As from 1955, Kodak colour printing materials, and the corresponding processing chemistry, were made available for sale to photographers, photofinishers, professional processing laboratories, or anyone else - but this applied only in the USA.

In the UK, Kodacolor Film was first sold in 1957 but all processing and printing was done by Kodak Ltd. Kodak did not release the processing chemicals and printing paper for general sale to anyone in the UK until 1959.

     

EKTACOLOR Papers

The change of name from Kodacolor paper to Ektacolor paper, post-1955, is thought to have occurred when it became possible for photographers to self-process Ektacolor Type B film and self-print their results onto the new (in 1955) Kodak Color Print Material Type C. The Type C material subsequently (1957-58) became known as Ektacolor paper (see below). At the time of the name change from Kodacolor to Ektacolor, the 'Koda' prefix is thought to have referenced print materials which could only be processed by Kodak, while the 'Ekta' prefix referred to materials which could be self-processed by the photographer, if he wished his results to be all his own work.

Ektacolor Paper
Kodak Color Print Material Type C was marketed from August 1955, and was followed by Kodak Ektacolor Paper Type 1384 in 1957 or 1958, (some sources give 1957, others, 1958). Kodak Color Print Material Type C continued to be manufactured for the professional user. In the UK it was known as “Kodak Colour Print Paper, Type C” and was introduced (in the UK) in 1958.

In 1959, the emulsion layers of Ektacolor Paper Type 1384 had sufficient hardness to enable processing to be carried out at 85°F, thus reducing the overall wet processing time to 25 minutes in the P-122 processing chemicals. The Developer was used at 85° +/– ½°F, and the rest of the chemicals and washes were used at 83–87°F.

However, there is some uncertainty here, as the Ektacolor paper which could be processed at this higher temperature may have been a new paper, designated, “Ektacolor Paper, Type 1502”, introduced in 1959.

Type 1502 was followed by Ektacolor Paper Type 1583 in 1962. In 1964, in the UK, the paper was obtainable in sheet sizes from 8½ x 6½ inches up to 30 x 40 inches, and in rolls up to 40 inches wide by 10 metres long.

In the UK, Ektacolor paper Type 1583 was replaced by Ektacolor 20 paper (see below) in 1966, but it was still listed for sale in the Kodak Limited UK Dealers’ Catalogue for 1966 to 1967. It is likely that all types of Ektacolor paper were manufactured in the USA at Kodak's manufacturing premises at Rochester New York, and then imported into the UK.

The colour balance of Ektacolor papers varied slightly from one emulsion to another and the white light filtration or the tri-colour exposures had to be altered when changing from one batch of paper to another. When using the earlier types of Ektacolor papers, the user was expected to expose a print on the new batch of paper and then compare the colour balance with a similar print, from the same negative printed on the old batch of paper. The print on the new paper then gave the colour balance and density difference between the two papers. The filtration and exposure for white light printing or the tri-colour exposures on the new print were then altered to match the colour balance of the old print.

By the early 1960s, certainly by 1962, Eastman Kodak gave the user a guide as to the difference between the various emulsion numbers of Ektacolor papers. Stamped on each label were “Arithmetical Factors” for Tri-Colour (additive) printing and a Filter Pack Adjustment and Speed Factor for White Light (subtractive) printing. The figures given were only an approximate guide to help the user make filter changes or change exposure times in the right direction. They were no help in giving a starting filtration to an unknown negative.

Ektacolor 20 and Ektacolor 20 RC paper marketed in the USA from 1964 to 1968
Ektacolor 20 paper Type 1720 was introduced to the Amercan market in 1964 with a formaldehyde free base to improve the magenta dye stability.
Two more versions, with continued improvements, were introduced as (i) Ektacolor 20 paper Type 1852, in 1966 and (ii) Ektacolor 20 paper Type 1870, in 1967.

The first Resin Coated (RC) colour negative printing paper was marketed as Ektacolor 20 RC paper Type 1822 in 1968. The 1822 designation was essentially the Type 1870 emulsion extrusion coated in polyethylene. The paper was manufactured with a “High Gloss” surface which eliminated glazing, and the surface was coded “F”, similar to the American black and white papers at that time.

Later in 1968 an improved version was introduced as Ektacolor 20 RC paper, Type 1910. This paper was also offered in two additional surfaces, “Silk”, coded “Y”, and “Lustre”, coded “N”, again similar the black and white papers of that time. The surface textures were almost identical to the equivalent “Y” and “N” black and white papers, such as “Kodabromide” and “Medalist”.

All Ektacolor 20 and Ektacolor 20 RC papers were processed in Ektaprint C chemicals, taking a total of 22 minutes at 85°F wet processing time.

Various literature suggests that the processing times were reduced for the two types of Ektacolor RC papers, notably (and logically) the last wash time, but Michael Talbert has been unable to find any actual Eastman Kodak processing sequences or printed literature where this was included when using Ektaprint C chemicals.

None of the Ektacolor 20 papers could be processed on the Rapid Color Processors using CP5 chemicals. These papers were mainly used in D&P laboratories in the U.S.A., and gradually replaced the older Ektacolor paper (see previous, above). Professional photographers who printed and processed their own colour prints, and Professional Colour Laboratories whose work was exclusively processing and printing professional photographers negatives, used Ektacolor Professional paper (see below).

The Ektacolor 20 RC paper Types 1822 and 1910 were replaced by Ektacolor 47 RC paper in 1970.

Ektacolor 20 and Ektacolor 20 RC paper marketed in the UK from 1966
Ektacolor 20 paper was introduced into the UK in 1966, as a replacement for Ektacolor paper. The UK instruction sheet dated August 1966 suggested that the new paper had “better glazing characteristics” and “improved stability” than Ektacolor paper. It was available in sheets and rolls in the same sizes and quantities as Ektacolor Commercial paper, excluding 11 x 14 inches, and was sold at the same price.

Much of the information given in the instruction sheet was identical with the instructions for Ektacolor Commercial paper. Two differences were that (i) Ektacolor 20 paper could not be processed on the Kodak Rapid Color Processors, and (ii) the exposure factors given on the sealing label of each packet or box only related to different batches of Ektacolor 20 paper, and could not be used to switch from one make of paper to another, such as from Ektacolor 20 paper to Ektacolor Commercial paper.

Kodak “Brightening Additive” could be used with Ektacolor 20 paper, mixed with the Formalin Fixer, to make the colours more brilliant, increase the print contrast, and give extra stability to the dye image. However, since the smallest quantity of “Brightening Additive” which could be obtained from Kodak UK was 3 UK gallons, it is unlikely that many amateur colour printers purchased it. The chemical was more likely to have been used by the professional D&P laboratories.

Ektacolor 20 paper was intended for processing in Ektaprint C chemicals, with a total wet processing time of 22 minutes at 85°F.
Although of similar speed to Ektacolor Commercial paper, the finished prints on Ektacolor 20 had a softer contrast and only a “semi gloss” finish if not glazed.

By 1970 the paper was being coated on a Resin Coated base and designated Ektacolor 20 RC paper with a highly glazed surface. It was obtainable only in rolls for the photofinishing trade.
Both Ektacolor 20 papers, i.e. the “paper” byrata base material and the resin coated (RC) material, were manufactured in the UK.

Ektacolor 20 RC paper was replaced by Ektacolor 37 RC paper in late 1971.

Ektacolor Commercial Paper (see box picture in this Section, below)
Ektacolor Commercial paper was introduced in late 1964. It could be processed in the 5 bath P-122 processing chemicals, Ektaprint C chemicals and using the Kodak Rapid Colour Processors. It had a higher contrast than Ektacolor and Ektacolor 20 papers with improved color rendering and cleaner whites. It was a fibre based product with a glossy surface, with slightly more sheen than the equivalent Kodak Bromide or Bromesko unglazed glossy paper (designated WSG).

Ektacolor Commercial paper was available in sheet sizes from 6½ x 8½inches to 30 x 40inches and wide rolls up to 40inches wide.

It was replaced by Ektacolor 37RC paper in 1972 although for a short time both products were being sold concurrently.

Ektacolor Professional Paper
“Professional” was a fibre based product, introduced as long ago as 1961, and was recommended for social, wedding , and portrait photography. It was said to exhibit the highest degree of image stability of all the Kodak colour papers. The paper was made in the USA, but was also listed in the UK Kodak Catalogues for Professional, Graphic Arts, and Industrial Users. It is believed to have replaced “Kodak Color Print Material, Type C”. Listed sizes were 8 x 10inches in boxes of 100 sheets, 30 x 40inches in 50 sheets, and rolls of 30inches wide by 50feet long. Other sizes were available, but had to be imported from the USA. The price of the paper was slightly higher than the equivalent price of the same size and quantity of Ektacolor Commercial paper.

The paper was originally designed for the 7 bath P-122 Process at 75°F, but later could be processed in the 6 bath P-122 chemistry (U.S.A.), the 5 bath P-122 chemistry (USA and UK), and Ektaprint C chemistry. In 1963, “Professional” was the first and only colour negative printing paper which could be processed in 7 minutes on the then, new, Kodak Rapid Processors i.e the H11L and 16K, using CP-5 chemistry.

It was replaced by Kodak Ektacolor 37RC in 1972 although for a short time both products were being sold concurrently.

Ektacolor 47RC Papers, Y – Silk surface and N – Smooth Lustre surface
Both these papers were introduced in 1970 (USA) and 1971 (UK) and were obtainable in roll sizes only for D&P laboratories.
In 1971, roll sizes ranged from 3½inches wide to 10inches wide. These two printing papers were mainly aimed for sale to processing laboratories for making medium sized to large machine prints for professional wedding and social photographers who were prepared to pay more for a standard of print i.e. at a cost higher than the low cost amateur en-print, but lower than a cropped, expensive, hand made print. A glossy surface could be added to the two choices of surfaces by using Ektacolor 20RC paper. 47RC paper was for processing in continuous processing machines using Ektaprint C chemicals. The two papers were replaced by Ektacolor 37RC papers in 1972, but both products were being sold concurrently for a short time.

All these papers could be handled under a Kodak Wratten safelight with a 25watt bulb, fitted with a 10H filter, (Dark Amber), for as long as 4minutes of direct lighting provided the paper was kept at least 4feet from the safelight.

The papers could be exposed by “Tri-color” (additive filtration) exposures, or by “White light” (subtractive filtration) exposure. The labels on the boxes and packets carried exposure factors for both types of printing methods, used when changing from one batch of paper to another. The exposure factors were no help when making the initial “set-up” exposure, using the papers for the first time. First time use required a trial and error procedure, but once a successful print was obtained, the exposure factors on subsequent packets could be used to modifty the result achieved with the first pack of paper.

The early instruction sheets for Ektacolor Commercial paper and Ektacolor 20 paper suggested exposing a first test print with no printing filters in the light beam. But as the papers were balanced for the use of yellow and magenta filters to correct the negative's colour balance (cyan filtration was hardly ever needed), Kodak, in their later instruction sheets, advised a starting filtration of 50 Yellow and 50 Magenta filters. (50 50 --). Either Kodak Colour Compensating ( CC ), or Kodak Colour Printing ( CP ), filters could be used to correct the color balance, but Colour Printing filters could not be placed in the image forming beam below the lens, as definition of the print would be reduced. Colour Compensating filters, being thinner, could be placed below (or above) the lens, but Colour Printing filters had to be placed in the filter drawer of the enlarger (above the negative and the lens). Any number of Colour Printing filters could be put in the filter draw, but no more than three Colour Compensating filters could be fitted below the enlarger lens if maximum definition was of importance. By the early 1960s, most colour processing laboratories were making colour prints using enlargers fitted with Agfacolor or Chromega colour heads, a much quicker way of changing the filtration than the laborious method of handling separate gelatine filters.

It was recommended that the enlarger should be fitted with a heat absorbing glass, or filter, to remove any infra red light to which the paper was sensitive. The filter, or heat absorbing glass, was fitted directly above the printing filter drawer to protect the filters from the heat of the lamp.

If it was found that the majority of the test prints exposed exhibited a green cast, and yellow/cyan filtration was needed to correct the colour balance despite the heat absorbing glass placed above the filter draw, Kodak recommended the CPIR filter to be fixed above or below the enlarger lens. This filter would bring the colour balance of most test prints to a red/magenta direction, and colour casts could be corrected using the more normal yellow/magenta filters. The CPIR was an infra red absorbing filter. All Ektacolor papers were sensitive to infra red light to some extent.

For “white light” printing, a Ultra Violet filter was recommended. This was a Wratten No. 2B or a CP2B. It could be placed in the filter draw and left there permanently. For “Tri-colour” printing it was not necessary, as each of the three Tri-colour filters filtered out UV light.

     

Ektacolor 30RC Paper
For some years, research had been going on at Eastman Kodak to try to reduce the number of processing baths and the total processing time for the negative colour print paper processes. Following on from the success of their first resin coated colour negative printing paper, Ektacolor 20RC type 1822 paper (see above), trade trials began in 1970 of the kind of colour printing paper that could be processed with a combined Bleaching and Fixing (BLIX) bath.

Earlier Kodak colour negative printing papers, such as Kodak Ektacolor Commercial paper, could be processed satisfactorily in a combined Bleach-Fix bath, and it is possible that Agfa patents had prevented Kodak from using a Bleach-Fix bath in their earlier colour print processes. (For formulae of Bleach-Fix baths compatible with Kodak colour papers, see the technical sections of the British Journal of Photography Annuals for 1968 and 1970.)

In the U.S.A., in 1971, this paper was marketed as “Kodak Ektacolor 30RC paper”, designed to be processed in the then, new, “Ektaprint 3“ process. Ektacolor 30RC was only obtainable in roll form, and was mainly made available to photofinishers. Roll widths varied from 3½ inches wide to 11 inches wide, with roll lengths of 250 feet to 700 feet. The only surface available was Glossy, a highly glazed surface. Manufacture of “30RC” was discontinued in 1974, replaced by Ektacolor 37RC paper.

Ektacolor 37RC Paper
In late 1971, Eastman Kodak introduced Ektacolor 37RC paper, another paper designed to be processed in Ektaprint 3 chemicals. In November 1971, Ektacolor Commercial, Ektacolor Professional and 47RC papers, and the Ektaprint C process chemicals, were still listed for sale in the Kodak Catalogue for Professional, Graphic Arts, and Industrial Users in the U.K. Hence, it is likely that Ektacolor 30RC and 37RC papers were not sold in the U.K. until early 1972.

Kodak Ektacolor 37RC paper was made available in roll and sheet formats. It had, like 30RC, a resin coated base which made for fast processing and drying in Ektaprint 3 chemicals. The paper was available in three surfaces:- Glossy, Code F; Silk, Code Y; and Smooth Lustre, Code N. The sheet sizes, in the U.S.A., ranged from 8 inches by 10 inches to 30 inches by 40 inches and roll sizes from 2¾ inches width to 40 inches width. The larger width rolls were for mural prints and came in 50 foot lengths. The narrow rolls were for photofinishers and were packed in 250 foot and 500 foot lengths. When air dried, the Glossy paper produced a highly glazed surface and the other two surfaces were much the same as the black and white papers’ equivalent surfaces.

Ektacolor 37RC paper was approximately the same speed as Ektacolor Commercial paper, and could be handled under a Kodak safelight filter No.10H for about 4 minutes provided the paper was kept at least 4 feet from the safelight.

The paper could be exposed using either Tri-color filters, or by the “White Light” method. The U.K. instruction sheet dated October 1971 recommended a trial starting filter pack of 50 Yellow and 50 Magenta, made up of Kodak colour printing filters or Kodak colour compensating filters. This was exactly the same filter recommendation as given in the later instruction sheets and Data sheet PP-12 for Ektacolor Commercial paper.

The labels on the boxes carried factors and filter changes for both Tri-colour and “White light” printing when changing over from one batch of paper to another. It was possible that the factors and filter changes may have worked satisfactorily when changing from one type of paper to another, e.g. from Ektacolor Commercial/Professional/47RC to Ektacolor 37RC paper.

The UK instruction sheet also has a very useful section on mounting prints, as at that time few photographers, including the author, had experience in mounting colour prints made on paper with a resin coated base. Before the introduction of Ektacolor 37 RC paper, the author, when trying to dry mount some prints made on Kodak Ektachrome RC paper, ruined several good prints made on this material during a “Trial and Error” session of mounting colour prints for his College portfolio!!

Ektacolor 37RC paper was suitable for making prints from all Kodak colour negative films. A Data release sheet, No. E-69, dated January 1973, gives suggested trial starting filtrations for Kodak Vericolor Type S, Ektacolor Professional Type S, Kodacolor X, and Kodacolor II films for three different types of enlarger or commercial printer light sources. Kodacolor X negatives were given a lower yellow filtration, i.e. less yellow, than Vericolor/Ektacolor Professional films because the mask used in the film was slightly more yellow. Kodacolor II filtrations were higher, because the negatives were slightly more blue in colour. In 1974, Kodak Vericolor Professional films were introduced, and because of their slightly blue/magenta mask, trial filtrations were similar to Kodacolor II films.

Ektacolor 37RC paper could also be exposed by the Tri-color method of printing, one exposure through each of three filters, such as:- No.70 Red, or No.25 Red, No.99 Green and No.98 Deep Blue. Varying the exposure through the filters changed the colour balance and density.

Ektacolor 74RC Paper
Ektacolor 74RC paper was introduced in 1976 as a faster version of Ektacolor 37RC paper (see above). The red layer was made approximately 5 times faster, and the green layer approximately 3 times faster, the blue layer remaining unchanged.

The paper was available in sheets and rolls, and could be handled in the darkroom by direct safelighting, under a Kodak safelight filter No.13 for no longer than 1½ minutes at a distance of at least 4feet from the safelight. By 1976, the older Kodak safelight filters, Nos.10 and 10H, were no longer recommended for Ektacolor papers, but the filters remained on the market for use with Kodak Ektacolor Print and Slide films, and for Kodak Panalure papers, panchromatic black and white papers, used for making b&w prints from colour negatives.

Filter factors were given on the sealing label for Tri-color and White Light printing to assist the printer when changing from one batch of paper to another.

74RC paper was available in three surfaces; F, Glossy, N, Smooth Lustre, and the then new “E” surface, termed as “Lustre Luxe”. Lustre Luxe was gradually replacing the previous “Y, Silk” surface, which had been first available as Ektacolor 20 RC paper “Y” in 1968 in the U.S.A. The new surface was recommended for portrait and social photography. The surface was similar to, but not identical to, the Kodak Bromide and Bromesko black and white papers' “White Fine Lustre” surface at that time, until their demise in 1982.

Kodak Ektacolor 74RC paper was replaced by Ektacolor 78 Paper in 1979 but was reinstated in 1982 as Ektacolor 74RC paper Type 2524. This paper was a lower contrast alternative to Ektacolor 78 paper and was designed for social, wedding, and portrait photography. It was only available in the “E, Lustre Luxe” surface in certain width roll sizes and four different sheet sizes.

     

     

KODACOLOR & EKTACOLOR Paper Processing

The P-122 Seven-Bath Processing Procedure (not including washes), from 1942
To view a P-122 process wall chart click here.

As from 1942, all types of Kodacolor paper were processed in Process P-122 chemistry. There were seven chemical baths and four washes, taking a total wet processing time of 42 minutes. The working temperature of the Developer was 75°F, plus or minus ½°F, and the other chemical baths and washes allowed a tolerance of 4°F, from 73°F to 77°F.

Total Darkness
1. Colour Developer 12 minutes
2. Stop-Bath 2 minutes
3. First-Fix 2 minutes
The rest of the procedure could be carried out in artificial light
4. Wash 2 minutes
5. Bleach 4 minutes
6. Wash 2 minutes
7. Harden-Fixer 2 minutes
8. Wash 8 minutes
9. Harden 3 minutes
10. Wash 2 minutes
11. Buffer 3 minutes

Dry

Total Time: 42 minutes

Notes:

  1. It is not known if a safelight was used for the first three steps when processing Kodacolor paper, but by the mid-1950s a safelight was available which had been designed specially for Kodak Ektacolor Paper, namely, “Wratten Series 10”. It was a dark amber colour, and the (then) new Ektacolor paper could be handled in the direct light of the safelight for a limited time, about 4 minutes.
  2. The P-122 Colour Developer used Kodak colour developing agent CD-2, but this developing agent was changed to CD-3 in 1955.
  3. The Hardener chemicals contained Formaldehyde as the hardening agent, to provide extra hardening after the Harden-Fixer. The Buffer was a kind of “Stabiliser”. Prints not treated in the “Buffer” would show stained whites, (border areas) and eventually, blue stains would appear on the backs of prints.
  4. Rolls of prints were dried after the Buffer treatment without rinsing, the drying drums giving off acid fumes.
  5. It is unlikely that the prints were glazed, as this would have incurred additional time in the Hardener.

As far as is known, the processing procedure outlined above was used without change for Kodacolor paper from 1942 to 1955.

Alternative P-122 Seven-Bath Processing Procedure (not including washes), from 1959
Kodak Color Print Material, Type C was marketed from 1955, followed by Kodak Ektacolor paper, Type 1384 in 1958
.
Type 1384 was designed for 75°F processing, but by 1959 the paper was found to have sufficient hardness to enable the processing temperature of the P-122 process to be increased by 10°F. The Colour Developer temperature was halved to 6 minutes, taking 14 minutes off the total processing time, thus increasing productivity.

Colour Developer at 85°F, solutions and washes at 83° – 87°F
Safelight for first three steps
1. Colour Developer 6 minutes
2. Stop Bath 2 minutes
3. First-Fix 2 minutes
Articial light
4. Wash 2 minutes
5. Bleach 2 minutes
6. Wash 2 minutes
7. Harden Fixer 2 minutes
8. Wash 4 minutes
9. Harden 2 minutes
10. Wash 2 minutes
11. Buffer 2 minutes

Dry
Total Time: 28 minutes

A Kodak UK Professional Catalogue for July 1963 shows that Kodak were still selling the Seven-Bath P-122 chemicals for Ektacolor paper as late as July 1963, a year after Agfa had changed to their faster 4 bath system.

P-122 Six-Bath procedure (not including washes), from 1962
The faster high temperature procedure paved the way for a Six-Bath P-122 process in 1962, (but see also Note 5 below), operating at 85°F or 75°F, with a further reduction of the total wet processing time. This sequence is taken from the Kodak Color Dataguide of 1964. This process was mainly for Ektacolor Professional Paper.

The Six-Bath process combined the ”Hardening Fixer” and the” Hardener” to become “Formalin Fixer”. Also, by this time, a hardening agent had been added to the “First Fix”.

Colour Developer at 85°F +/-½°F, other solutions and washes at 83° – 87°F (or 73° - 77°F).

Total Darkness or Wratten Series 10 or 10H for first three steps
1. Colour Developer 7 minutes
2. Stop-Bath 1 minute (or 2 minutes at 73° - 77°F)
3. First Hardener Fixer 1 minute (or 2 minutes at 73° - 77°F)

Remaining steps can be carried out in white light
4. Wash 2 minutes (or 2 minutes at 73° - 77°F)
5. Bleach 2 minutes (or 4 minutes at 73° - 77°F)
6. Wash 2 minutes (or 2 minutes at 73° - 77°F)
7. Formalin Fixer 2 minutes (or 3 minutes at 73° - 77°F)
8. Wash 4 minutes (or 8 minutes at 73° - 77°F)
9. Buffer 2 minutes (or 3 minutes at 73° - 77°F)
10. Dry; Not over 180°F
Total time: 23 minutes (or 33 minutes if using or 73° - 77°F for steps 2 - 9)

Notes:

  1. This process was intended mainly for "Ektacolor Professional Paper". Eastman Kodak recommended a development time of 7 minutes at 85°F with this paper.
    It is possible that “Ektacolor Paper” was processed in the same procedure using a development time of 6 minutes at 85°F, or 12 minutes at 75°F.
    Ektacolor Paper was a photofinishers’ product, for use mainly in D&P laboratories for printing amateurs’ colour negatives. In the U.K., by 1961, it was obtainable in roll and sheet sizes.
  2. If the prints were to be glazed, the times in the Formalin Fixer were doubled.
  3. For greater dye permanence, Kodak Stabilizing Additive could be added to the Buffer solution using slightly longer processing times. For 83 – 87°F processing, the Buffer time was increased to 3 minutes, and for 73 – 77°F processing, the Buffer time was increased to 6 minutes.
  4. It is likely that the above procedure was operated only in laboratories in the U.S.A. Michael Talbert can find no evidence that the 6 bath P-122 process was used in the U.K.
  5. The above sequence is included in the 2nd edition, second printing, of the “Kodak Color Dataguide”, published in November 1964. It seems odd that this sequence was printed in the 1964 Guide when a five bath P-122 process was introduced in 1963 (see below). The Kodak Professional Catalogue for 1964 to 1965 (issued in July 1964), lists “Kodak Colour Print Processing Chemicals, Process P-122 (5 solution process)” on page 24. This process was known as “Ektaprint C” from 1965 in the U.K. Other research has confirmed that the P-122 6 bath process originated in 1962.

P-122 Five-Bath procedure
By 1963, the “Stop Bath” and the” First Hardening Fix” were combined to “Stop-Fix” and the procedure was again shortened to a total of 22 minutes wet processing time.

Colour Developer at 85°F, solutions and washes at 83° – 87°F.

Safelight for first two steps.
1. Colour Developer 6 minutes
2. Stop-Fix 2 minutes

Artificial Light
3. Wash 2 minutes
4. Bleach 2 minutes
5. Wash 2 minutes
6. Formalin-Fixer 2 minutes
7. Wash 4 minutes
8. Buffer 2 minutes

Dry
Total time: 22 minutes

As far as Michael Talbert knows, the 28 minute and the 23 minute procedures were not widely used in the U.K; the Seven-Bath 42 minute procedure was replaced by the Five-Bath 22 minute procedure as late as 1963.

The last P-122 procedure was renamed “Ektaprint C” in 1964 (U.S.A.), 1965 (U.K.), with minor chemical changes, and the “Buffer” becoming “Stabiliser”. Processing times were unchanged.

     

Ektaprint C Chemicals, from 1964

In the U.S.A., from 1964, the collective name of the Kodak colour negative paper print processing chemicals was changed to “Ektaprint C”. The times and temperatures of the processing baths and washes remained the same except the last bath, the “Buffer” bath, was changed to a “Stabilizer” bath. In the U.K., this change took place a year later.

The Ektaprint C processing chemicals were used for dish processing, batch processing in tanks, or in continuous processing machines designed to process long rolls of paper. The chemicals were available in sizes from 1 litre to 100 litres. Kits of chemicals in 1 litre and 5 litres were obtainable, the developer being separately packed in Unit 1, and the Stop-Fix, Bleach, Formalin-Fix, and Stabilizer were packed in Unit 2. The processing chemicals were also sold separately to make 3 gallons, 40 litres, and 100 litres of working solution. All sizes were sold as concentrates to be mixed to make the working solution.

Ektaprint C Processing Procedure
This procedure was for the 1 litre kits and the four page instruction leaflet gave mixing directions for the chemical baths and information on processing prints in dishes.
Prints could be processed at either 73 – 77°F, developer at 75°F, or 83 – 87°F, developer at 85°F.

Processing Step

temperature °F

time(minutes)

temperature °F

time(minutes)
Safelight (Wratten 10H) for first two steps
1. Developer

85°; + / – 1/2°

6

75°; + / – 1/2°

12
2. Stop-Fix

83 – 87°

2

73 – 77°

2
White light can be turned on
3. Wash

83 – 87°

2

73 – 77°

2
4. Bleach

83 – 87°

2

73 – 77°

4
5. Wash

83 – 87°

2

73 – 77°

2
6. Formalin Fixer

83 – 87°

2

73 – 77°

3
7. Wash

83 – 87°

4

73 – 77°

8
8. Stabilizer

83 – 87°

2

73 – 77°

3
9. Dry or Glaze; Not above 180°F

Notes:

  1. The above times as they are printed in the table are for the old Ektacolor paper, Ektacolor 20 paper, Ektacolor 20RC paper, or Ektacolor 47RC paper.
  2. Ektacolor Commercial paper required double the above Bleach times. Ektacolor Professional paper required 7 minutes development at 85°F
  3. If the prints were to be glazed, Either:
    Prints could go through the whole sequence, dried, and then bathed in water for 1 to 2 minutes, then transferred to the glazing sheets or dryer for hot or cold glazing.
    Or:
    The time in the Formalin Fixer could be doubled and the prints glazed directly after leaving the Stabilizer.
  4. “Dish tilt” agitation was given and up to three sheets of paper could be processed by interleaving the sheets at one time.
  5. Except for the Developer, 1 litre of each working solution could be used to process 10 off 8 x 10inch prints before discarding the solution. (800 square inches per litre). For the highest possible quality, 1 litre of Developer could process only 250 square inches of paper which amounted to just over 3 off 8 x 10inch sheets. If the Developer was protected from oxidation as much as possible, and a slightly lower quality of print was acceptable, up to 10 off 8 x 10inch prints could be processed in 1 litre of developer.
  6. If the Wash water could not be kept at the recommended temperature range, it was possible to wash the prints in water at lower temperatures down to 50°F. In this case the wash times for the 73 – 77°F processing sequence had to be increased by 50%.
     

 

 

A tin of Kodak “Ektaprint C” Bleach chemicals

The tin contained two powder components to be diluted in water to make 3 Gallons of working solution of Bleach chemicals. This was not part of a “Kit” of chemicals. Each working solution of the processing chemicals for the Ektaprint C process were available separately in 3 Gallons, 40 litre, and 100 litre sizes.

The 3 Gallon size was intended for colour printing laboratories batch processing prints through a 3 gallon tank line using Kodak Colour Print processing baskets. Once mixed, the Bleach chemicals would last for 8 weeks, unused or partially used, in a 3 gallon tank. On a commercial scale, most tank processing lines were replenished, and the processing solutions were not replaced unless dirt had worked it’s way into the system or one or several solutions were badly contaminated. The process could be monitored by processing “Ektaprint C Control Strips” on a regular basis.

This tin dates from 1965. Kodak included a 4 page instruction sheet packed with the 3 Gallon Ektaprint C Developer chemicals.

     

Working with Ektaprint C chemicals
Michael Talbert had experience of processing Ektacolor Commercial and Ektacolor 20 papers in dishes, like black and white prints, using Ektaprint C chemicals, during 1969 to 1971.

Five dishes were essential, keeping one special dish for the colour developer to prevent contamination. A Paterson Dishwarmer with a thermostat was used to maintain the developer temperature within the strict limits of 85° +/– ½°F. Processing was always carried out using the higher 83° – 87° sequence, doubling the Bleach time for “Commercial” paper. Since the prints were of rather soft contrast when developing at the Kodak advised time of 6 minutes, the development time was increased to 8 minutes at 85°F for all prints made on Ektacolor Commercial paper.

The last wash, step 7, was also increased in time to about 6 minutes, for greater permanence. All washes were carried out in a large sink with running water at approximately 85F.

Test strips were processed only up to the Bleach stage, then washed briefly and dried for assessment. As “Commercial” and “20” papers exhibited a blue/magenta colour cast whilst wet, it was extremely difficult to judge colour casts before drying. Hence, a small, amateur print dryer was used to dry the test strips and so reduce the time before assessment could be carried out.

The Paterson dishwarmer performed well, but could accommodate only two 8 inch by 10 inch dishes on the top. Michael kept the Developer and Bleach dishes on the warmer, and the Stop-Fix dish was placed by the side of the warmer. The Stop-Fix temperature was at room temperature for processing, but in winter the solution had to be warmed occasionally to prevent its temperature from falling below about 65°F. This seemed to work well, and no detrimental effects were noticed in the processed prints caused by using the solution at a lower than recommended temperature.

The Developer dish was covered with a wooden lid to prevent oxidation and also prevent other solutions from being splashed into the dish whilst transferring prints from the wash to the Bleach. When a final print was made, the Formalin Fixer and Stabilizer bottles were heated to 87°F and the solutions poured into the two extra dishes. Most prints made were 8 inch by 10 inch or smaller, but 15 inch by 12 inch prints were tried, pouring the solutions in and out of one large dish.

There was little processing latitude with regard to the Developer temperature, but more latitude with timing errors.

Both makes of paper did not keep well and so off-white borders were common. Ektacolor 20 paper was of very soft contrast and had a semi-gloss surface which enhanced the low contrast. Both papers were fibre based, so drying times were long.

In date Ektacolor Commercial paper was capable of giving very good results, as long as the original negative was not too soft, or the subject matter was of low contrast. Michael seldom made prints on Ektacolor 20 paper. The two packets that he tried were out of date and gave very soft results with poor whites and muted colours.

Compared with using a light tight drum for print processing, dish processing was difficult !
(i) The first two processing steps had to be carried out in the dark or, at best, using a very dim safelight. Not having the recommended Wratten 10H safelight filter, Michael made do with a Wratten series 3 filter, i.e. dark green, for use normally with panchromatic black and white films. White light could be turned on after 10 minutes.
(ii) The Developer oxidized very quickly, partly because of being in an open dish, and was very prone to contamination from other chemicals.
(iii) A test strip took about 20 minutes from placing it in the Developer to being able to assess it.
(iv) A final print could take as long as 28 minutes to process, even without the drying time. A resin coated paper would have speeded up the drying, but at that time, no Kodak colour negative printing papers were available in resin coated sheet form.

By 1972, Ektacolor 37 RC paper was available for processing in the then new Ektaprint 3 chemicals, giving a much shorter total wet processing time of 8 minutes.

     

Kodak Rapid Colour Processors and the CP-5 Process

In 1963, Eastman Kodak introduced two compact colour print processing machines, each designed to process one sheet of paper in the amazingly short total processing time of 7 minutes at a high temperature of 100°F (37.8°C). The smaller machine was known as Model H11-L and was capable of processing prints up to 11 x 14ins. It required 125ccs of each processing solution for each processing run. The larger machine was known as the Model 16-K; mainly for professional photographers, it took sheets of paper up to 16 x 20ins. It required 250ccs of each solution for each processing run. The machines were known as “Drum Processors” and used the same colour processing chemicals as the (then) dish and tank processors, i.e. Process P-122, or later, Ektaprint C. Because of the high operating temperature, the individual chemical baths had different formulations than the dish and tank process. The collective name for the process was “CP-5”. The same process timings were used with both drum processors.

The machines consisted of a hollow drum on it’s side, into which water was pumped from a large dish of temperature controlled water at 100°F. The water flowed in and out the drum keeping the surface temperature of the drum at 100°F. The drum, powered by a small electric motor, revolved through a trough which held the processing chemicals. At the end of each processing step the trough was lowered and the chemical drained out, then the trough was raised and another chemical bath was poured into it. The stainless steel surface of the drum was covered in grooves, or channels, which picked up the chemical solution at the bottom of the drum and carried it underneath the print surface. The print was held emulsion down on top of the drum underneath an epoxy coated net blanket, attached to a metal bar which clipped into slots at the front of the processor.

The 16-K processor had its own water heating unit built into it on the left hand side. For the smaller H11-L machine it was possible to purchase a separate heating unit that provided continuous temperature controlled water to the Processor. This unit was made by TECHNE of Cambridge. The unit was called the Techne 2 and it clipped onto the inside of a fairly deep dish of water. A hose from the Techne 2 was put inside the processing drum and water at the correct temperature for maintaining 100°F was pumped continuously into the drum, with the water subsequently draining back into the deep dish. The hose also served for washing the back of the print.

Picture alongside taken from the Kodak book “Printing Color Slides”, page 18, publication No.E-96.

The original Kodak instruction sheet for the CP 5 process, dated December 1964, tells how to load the drums.

To start, you poured the developer into the tray at the base of the drum, then switched on the drive motor. The drum then revolved taking the developer over the top of the drum in the grooves. Then the room lights were switched off leaving the Wratten 10H safelight on, and the print or test strip, which had been put in a light tight box after exposure, was placed in a dish of water when using the 16K processor, or the reservoir for the Techne 2 heating unit when using the H-11L processor.

After ½ minute the print/test strip was taken out of the dish or reservoir, drained for 10 seconds, and then arranged on the net blanket which was also soaked in the dish or reservoir. A metal bar was fixed at the end of one of the shorter sides of the net blanket. The short side of the print or test strip was placed at the “bar” end of the blanket, spaced about ½ inch away from the bar with the emulsion facing the operator, the back of the print against the blanket.

The print was then laid emulsion down on top of the drum with the net blanket on top of the print and the operatror rapidly hooked the metal bar, at one end of the net blanket, into a lug either side of the drum. As soon as the print touched the drum, you started timing the development. Loading the drum with a print or test strip took 3 or 4 seconds, in the dark or by the very dim light of the Kodak Wratten 10H safelamp ! You had to have a chemical solution (or wash water) between the drum and the print, or the 'drag' of the dry drum surface would eject the print off the drum. Hence the developer had to be in the trough at the base of the drum before the print was loaded. The internally heated rotating drum then heated the developer to the right temperature before the print was placed onto the drum and developed.

After the development step, the temperature of the drum most likely dropped slightly, but this didn't matter much as the temperature wasn't critical for the other solutions or washes, and the drum quickly regained it’s 100°F temperature.

In 1963, when the drums were first sold in America, it was an amazing process, less than 8 minutes to process a print. Some labs in the U.K. at that time were still using process P-122 at 42 minutes to process a print. The P-122 short process, later Ektaprint C, almost halved that time by 1964 (earlier in the U.S.A). By 1966, Agfa Gevaert had almost halved their “Short Process”, the Pa process, to a total of 17 minutes by raising the process temperature to 77°F.

     

CP-5 Processing Steps
The first three steps had to be carried out under a Kodak Wratten 10H safelight, but before this stage, the drum was switched on and the developer was poured into the trough. Then, under the safelight, the exposed print was taken from it’s light-tight box and was pre-soaked for ½ minute in the large dish containing the Techne 2 before being loaded onto the drum. After ½ minute, it was taken out of the dish, positioned on the net blanket, and drained for 10 seconds. Holding the print on place on the blanket, the blanket and print were lowered onto the revolving surface of the drum and when the emulsion surface made contact, the net-blanket bar was quickly clipped to the front of the drum. Timing of the development step began as soon as the emulsion of the print made contact with the drum.

Under a Kodak Wratten 10H safelight
Processing Step

Time (in minutes)
1. Colour Developer

2. Wash

½
3. Stop-Fix

½
Remaining steps could be done in normal room lighting
4. Wash

½
5. Bleach

1
6. Wash

½
7. Formalin Fixer

½
8. Wash

½
9. Stabilizer

½
10. Dry

Not above 180°F (82°C)

The developer temperature had to be at 100°F +/– ½ a degree F. The rest of the solutions and washes could deviate 2°F either way from 100°F.

Below are pictures of a box of Ektacolor Commercial paper dating from 1964 to 1966.
The sealing label shows factors for Tri-colour printing plus the filters and speed factor for white light printing. These figures were used when changing from one batch of paper to another. This information was only a guide and was subject to change as soon as the paper left the factory due to variations in storage temperatures and age of paper.

The P-122 process on the label refers to the five bath P-122 process described prior to the CP-5 process. Ektacolor Commercial paper could also be processed in CP-5 chemicals for drum processing, or in the later Ektaprint C chemicals. This label was printed before the P-122 process name was changed to Ektaprint C (in the U.K.), but the instructions packed inside the box gave details of the CP-5 process. (Printing date of instructions is October 1964.)

The Kodak Colour Print Drier, Model 1-R, was able to dry a print in seven minutes, and it was capable of drying a print up to 20 x 16ins. The dryer was recommended by Kodak for use with either Rapid processor.

In 1963, Kodak Ektacolor Professional Paper was used with the drums as this had sufficient emulsion hardness for the high processing temperature. This paper was available mainly in the U.S.A, but by 1964 the drums were beginning to be sold in the U.K., and in that year a new colour printing paper was marketed, namely,”Kodak Ektacolor Commercial Paper”. Only made in the U.K., this paper was suitable for use with the rapid processing drums. It had a fairly high contrast, with brighter whites, and was particulary suitable for advertising photography. It could also be processed with P-122 chemicals and the Ektaprint C process.

In 1963, 7 minutes was a remarkably short total processing time. In 1963, Agfacolor and Gevacolor papers took ½hour to process. But by 1971, a colour print processed in the new Ektaprint 3 chemicals took only 8 minutes, with the advantage of using only three solutions and one wash step. By the mid-1970's, drum processors were beginning to be used more for the convenience of processing one print at a time rather than speed of processing. Also, by then, it was found much easier to load a print inside a light-tight drum, with the chemical solutions being poured inside the drum. This enabled the whole processing procedure to be conveniently carried out in white light. Such processors were the “Wilkinson” and later the “Simmard Color Drum” and the “Kodak Printank”. (For the amateur home processing market, noteably Durst, Jobo and Paterson produced versions of varying sophistication and price).

Michael Talbert had considerable experience of processing prints using the H11-L drum in the early 1970's. His comments are:

  • As the H11-L drum could only process one 11" x 14" print at a time, it was difficult to achieve two exactly matching prints, as the developer temperature fluctuated and the development time, being so short, became critical. It was possible, but not easy. However, the machines were really designed for the solo colour darkroom worker who wanted to make one high quality print occasionally. If much care was taken with the timings and temperature, very high quality prints resulted.
  • Experience showed that, with very careful loading, individual prints of 12" x 15" could be processed; also two whole plate prints could be procesed together.
  • The wash after the Bleach was too short, and it was best to increase it to 1minute to avoid possible contamination of the Formalin Fixer. Likewise, Michael always extended the last wash to 1minute for print permanence before Stabilizing. It should be noted that the colour paper in those days was not resin coated, and the paper base soaked up chemicals "like a sponge", requiring far more thorough washing than a resin coated paper.
  • Compared with Ektaprint C, the CP-5 processing method was expensive, because 125ccs. of chemical solution had to be used for each processing run. However, it was possible, if one was careful, to use only 100ccs, of each processing solution for each processing run. A test strip would use as much chemical as a full size print. Test strips were usually processed only to Stage 6 (see table above) to save time and chemicals. They could then be dried and assessed for colour balance. Ektacolor Commercial paper was difficult to judge whilst wet because of a blue/magenta colour cast which disappeared on drying.
  • At one time, Ektaprint C developer was substituted for the CP-5 developer. This gave rather soft results and the development time had to be increased to 3½ minutes (from 2½minutes). Even then, the Ektaprint C developer never matched the quality of the CP-5 developer.
  • The author also used the H11-L machine to process Ektachrome RC paper, Gevacolor M8 paper, and Agfacolor MCN111 Type 7 paper.
     

The Kodak Color Processor Model 30

By the mid-1960's, another larger colour print processor was available for processing prints from 20 x 16ins to 30 x 40ins. The Kodak Color Processor Model 30 could process a single sheet of 30 x 40ins paper in 7 minutes using CP 100 chemicals. The processor could be operated in ordinary room lighting as the exposed print was placed inside the drum. There were 10 processing steps of ½minute each, excepting the development time of 2½ minutes.

     

Processing in Ektaprint 3 Chemicals, from 1971

In 1971, the Kodak Ektaprint 3 process replaced Kodak Ektaprint C, CP-5, and CP-100 processes. Ektaprint 3 consisted of three chemical baths and one wash for fast processing of Ektacolor 30RC and 37RC papers. Colour printing papers of the byrata base type, i.e. non-RC, such as Ektacolor Commercial, Professional, and earlier resin coated papers, Ektacolor 20RC and 47RC, could not be processed in Ektaprint 3.

Ektaprint 3 Process for dish, and batch processing in 3 gallon tanks using colour print baskets.

Processing Step

Temperature °F

Time in minutes
Total Darkness or No.10H safelight
1. Colour Developer 88 +/– ½°F 3½ minutes
2. Bleach-Fix 86 – 90 °F 1½ minutes
Remaining steps can be done in normal room lighting
3. Wash 86 – 90 °F 2 minutes
4. Stabilizer 86 – 90 °F 1 minute
5. Dry Air drying if possible. Not over 225°F.
Remember: Do not glaze glossy paper !
Total time 8 minutes

With regard to dish processing, because the print went from the Developer into the Bleach-Fix without a wash in between, rapid contamination of the Bleach-Fix bath was common by too much developer being carried over into the Bleach-Fix. Kodak recommended a “Drain Time” of at least 15 seconds over the developer dish or tank, but despite this, contamination of the Bleach-Fix still produced cyan or magenta stains on the prints in many instances. To alleviate this problem, an extra bath and wash could be inserted into the processing sequence.

Ektaprint 3 Process with a Stop-Bath

Processing Step

Temperature °F

Time in minutes
Total Darkness or No.10H safelight
1. Colour Developer 88 +/– ½°F 3½ minutes
2. Stop Bath 86 – 90 °F 1 minute
3. Wash 86 – 90 °F 1 minute
4. Bleach-Fix 86 – 90 °F 1½ minutes
Remaining steps can be done in normal room lighting
5. Wash 86 – 90 °F 2 minutes
6. Stabilizer 86 – 90 °F 1 minute
7. Dry Air drying if possible. Not over 225°F.
Remember: Do not glaze glossy paper !
Total time 10 minutes

Notes.

  1. The Stop Bath originally recommended was the Process C-22 Stop Bath, exactly as used in the C-22 colour negative process. Later on a formula was given such as a 2% solution of Acetic Acid.
  2. It was possible to use cold water for the wash steps, not lower than 50°F, provided that many changes of water were given with vigorous agitation.
  3. When processing one sheet in a dish, continuous agitation was necessary by raising and lowering alternate sides of the dish. When processing more than one sheet, interleaving agitation was recommended, up to a maximum of three sheets processed at one time.
  4. Manual or gaseous burst agitation was used in a 3 gallon tank installation for batch processing colour prints in print baskets. It was possible that batch processing in tanks would still need the extra Stop Bath step plus Wash.
     

Ektacolor 37 RC Paper Processing in Ektaprint 3 using the Kodak Rapid Colour Processors, H-11L and 16K
Ektacolor 37RC paper could be processed on the Kodak Rapid Colour Processors, Models H-11L and 16K (see above) in the same way as Ektacolor Commercial Paper.

As the back of the resin coated paper was much smoother than the paper base support of Ektacolor Commercial paper, a green coated 'Net Blanket' was used to hold the resin coated paper on the drum. The green blanket gripped the smooth surface of the back of the print to prevent it from sliding out of the drum.

Note by the author: It has to be said that I processed many test strips and prints on Ektachrome RC paper between January 1971 and April 1971 using the regular Net Blanket on a Kodak H-11L drum processor and as far as I can remember I never had any problems of prints or test strips sliding out of the drum. So perhaps it may not have made much difference which Net Blanket was used for R.C. paper processing. I am certain that the new green Net Blanket was not on the market in early 1971. The thickness of both papers was the same or very nearly so.

A different colour developer was used for drum processing Ektacolor 37RC paper. Kodak Ektaprint 300 Developer was made specially for use with the drums mentioned and for the larger Kodak Rapid Processors Models 30 and 30A. The Bleach Fix and Stabilizer were the same chemicals as used for dish, tank, and continuous processors. In the U.K. in 1973, Ektaprint 300 Developer was available in a 1 U.S. gallon size, (3.8 litres.). At the same time in the U.S, Ektaprint 300 Developer was available in 1 U.S. gallon and 3½ U.S. gallon sizes.

The smallest packing of Ektaprint 3 Bleach Fix or Stabilizer was 5 litres. (From Kodak Professional Catalogue, November 1973). The smallest size of Bleach Fix or Stabilizer sold in the U.S. was 1 U.S. gallon. (Kodak Professional Products Catalog, 1973 – 74).

Processing Step

Temperature °F

Time in minutes
Total Darkness or Kodak No.10H or 10 safelight filter
1. Pre-Wet in tray of water at room temperature to 102°F ½ minute
2. Develop 100 +/– ½°F 2 minutes
3. Wash 100 +/– 2°F ½ minute
4. Bleach-Fix 100 +/– 2°F 1 minute
Remaining steps can be done in normal room lighting
5. Wash 100 +/– 2°F ½ minute
6. Stabilizer 100 +/– 2°F ½ minute
5. Dry Air drying if possible. Not over 225°F.
Remember: Do not glaze glossy paper !
Total time 5 minutes

Notes:

  1. The print or test strip to be processed can be “pre wetted” in a tray of water at room temperature or in the reservoir of water being pumped into the drum to keep the drum temperature at 100°F. The print or test strip had to be drained for 10 seconds before being loaded onto the drum.
  2. A 5 second drain time was required for the other steps, including washes.
  3. The processor tray was tilted to dump the chemicals out, 5 seconds before the end of each step.
  4. When the Kodak H-11L processor was used, the print or test strip could be washed with the contents of two 1 litre containers of water, prepared in advance with water at 102°F. One litre of water was used for each wash step. The Kodak 16K processor required a separate wash hose for the two wash steps with a flow rate of at least 1 gallon per minute. During the wash steps the processor tray was kept at the tilted position.
  5. Unlike the dish, tank, and continuous processing procedures, a Stop Bath was unnecessary.
  6. Taken from “Kodak Color Dataguide“ published in January 1974.
     

Ektacolor 37 RC Paper Processing in Ektaprint 3 using the Kodak Rapid Colour Processors, Models 30 and 30A
The various size drums were loaded with the exposed paper under Kodak Safelight filter Nos. 10H or 10, or in total darkness.

Processing Step

Temperature controlled at 100°F by the Processor

Time in minutes
Total Darkness or Kodak No.10H or 10 safelight filter
1. Pre-Wash ½ minute
2. Develop 2½ minutes
3. Stop Bath ½ minute
4. Wash ½ minute
5. Bleach-Fix ½ minute
6. Wash ½ minute
7. Wash ½ minute
6. Stabilizer ½ minute
5. Dry Air drying if possible. Not over 225°F.
Remember: Do not glaze glossy paper !
Total time 6 minutes

Notes:

  1. All solutions and washes were used at a temperature of 100°F. The 30 and 30A processors bring the processing solutions and wash water, held in eight separate reservoirs filled before the start of processing, to the correct temperature. The machines then keep the temperature at 100°F during processing.
  2. Ektaprint 3 Stabilizer was used for the Stop Bath step.
  3. The drums were drained for 10 seconds at each processing step or wash before the next solution was poured into the drum.

Kodak Safelight Filters for Colour Negative Printing Papers
During 1973, Kodak introduced a new safelight filter for Kodak colour negative/positive printing papers, Kodak Safelight Filter, No. 13. The previous safelight filter was known as 10H in the U.K. and 10 in the U.S.A.

Kodak safelight filter No. 13 was recommended for use with all Ektacolor papers, to be used in a safelamp with a 15 watt bulb. The previous 10, or 10H, filter could still be used with a 7½ watt bulb.

All Ektacolor papers could be handled for a little over 3 minutes at a distance from the safelight of no less than 4 feet before exposure, and no longer than 3 minutes after exposure with either safelight filter. The No. 13 safelight filter gave a brighter illumination than the 10H or 10. The colour of the No. 13 safe light filter was designated as “Amber”, best described as an orange – brown. The 10H or 10 was approximately the same colour but darker, designated “Dark Amber”.

     

Kodak Ektaprint 2 process, from 1976

Kodak Ektaprint 2 chemicals for processing Ektacolor papers were introduced in 1976. The process was essentially a shortened version of the Ektaprint 3 colour print process with the Stabilizer bath omitted. Temperatures of the solutions and washes were slightly different to Ektaprint 3.

By increasing the final wash time from 2 minutes to 3½ minutes it was possible to omit the Stabilizer giving the same degree of permanence to the prints. It was also recommended to increase the development temperature to 91°F, (33°C), giving a development time of 3½ minutes.

Ektaprint 2 Process for dish or tank processing of Ektacolor 37RC paper or Ektacolor 74RC paper

Processing Step

Temperature °F

Time in minutes
Total Darkness or Kodak Safelight Filter No.13
1. Colour Developer 91 +/– ½°F 3½ minutes
2. Bleach-Fix 86 – 93 °F 1½ minutes
Remaining steps can be done in white light.
3. Wash 86 – 93 °F 3½ minutes
4. Dry Air drying if possible. Not over 225°F.
Remember: Do not glaze glossy paper !
Total time 8½ minutes

Two additional steps, Stop Bath and Wash, could be inserted when the developer carry over into the Bleach Fix was excessive, causing marks and stains on the prints, see below These additional steps were almost essential for dish processing.

Ektaprint 2 Process with additional Stop Bath and Wash steps

Processing Step

Temperature °F

Time in minutes
Total Darkness or Kodak Safelight Filter No.13
1. Colour Developer 91 +/– ½°F 3½ minutes
2. Stop Bath. 86 – 93 °F 1 minute
3. Wash. 86 – 93 °F 1 minute
4. Bleach-Fix 86 – 93 °F 1½ minutes
  Remaining steps can be done in white light.
5. Wash 86 – 93 °F 3½ minutes
6. Dry Air drying if possible. Not over 225°F.
Remember: Do not glaze glossy paper !
Total time 10½ minutes

Notes:

  1. There was slightly more latitude in the temperature of the processing solutions and washes, except for the Developer, compared with Ektaprint 3 i.e. 86 – 93°F for Ektaprint 2 compared to 86 – 90°F for Ektaprint 3. It is quite likely that perfectly processed prints were made using temperatures outside these limits.
  2. To ensure permanence in the processed prints, it was essential that the final wash water was used at a temperature not lower than 86°F. If a Stabilizer was used, as in the Ektaprint 3 process, prints could be washed in water at a temperature as low as 50°F provided frequent changes of water were given. This gave photofinishers a choice; they could either pay for heating the water to at least 86°F in the processor, or pay for the extra chemical bath, the Stabilizer, preceded by a cold water wash.
  3. In 1976, Kodak introduced a new colour negative printing paper, Ektacolor 74RC paper. Ektacolor 37RC paper could be processed in Ektaprint 2, and an instruction sheet for the paper dated December 1976, recommended either Ektaprint 2 or 3.
  4. Process C-22 Stop Bath was suggested for Step 2 in the second Ektaprint 2 processing sequence (immediately above), or a 2% acetic acid solution.
     

Ektacolor 37RC and Ektacolor 74RC papers in the Kodak Rapid Processors using Ektaprint 300 developer and Ektaprint 2 Bleach Fix
Ektaprint 300 & 200 Colour Developers
Ektaprint 300 Developer was initially recommended for use only in the Kodak Rapid Drum Processors; Ektaprint 2 Developer was recommended for use in all other processing equipment, even in the small Tube Processors, as were mostly used by amateurs.

By 1984 Ektaprint 300 Developer became Ektaprint 200 Developer and was now advised for use in small Tube Processors as well as the Kodak Rapid processors.

In the late 1970s, the first table top roller transport machines had been put on the market, such as the Agfaprint machines, and Ektaprint 200 Developer was recommended for these machines if using Ektaprint 2 chemistry. Ektaprint 200 Developer was obtainable in 5 Litres and 15 litres sizes.

Ektaprint 300 Developer was for use with Ektaprint 2 or Ektaprint 3 Bleach Fix. There was never an Ektaprint 300 or 200 Bleach Fix.

The only change in the Kodak Rapid Processor sequence (see above, here and here) was the time in the last wash which was extended to 1 minute, the Stabilizer bath being omitted.
The total length of the process remained the same, 5 minutes.

     
Ektaprint 2 colour print processing chemicals for processing machines ~ 1980

By 1980 Kodak Limited (U.K) were manufacturing Ektaprint 2 colour print processing chemicals for many different processing applications and types of processing machines.
This section also gives some idea of the range of processing methods and processing machines at that time, ranging from those used by amateur photographers through to the large processing laboratories.

1.  Rapid Colour Processors.
Such as the Kodak H11L, 16K, and by then the possibly obsolete Models 30 and 30A

2.  Small volume Rotary Discard Processors.
Such as the Kodak “Printank”, the “Simmard”, the Durst “Codrum” plus others. Although a different design to the last three processors mentioned, the “Wilkinson” Tube processor could be included in this section.

3.  Replenished Tank Lines.
Meaning by then the old fashioned method of manual processing colour paper in a Kodak No.3 Color-Print processing basket which was dunked by hand, part of the time in total darkness, in and out of 15 litre, or 3 gallon tanks situated in a temperature controlled water bath. By the late 1970s this was becoming a rather out-dated system of colour print processing. Dish processing for amateurs could be included under this heading although by this time many amateur processors had switched the more convenient and easier method of using a rotary discard processor. (see above).

4. Continuous Strand Processors.
Rolls of paper for processing were attached to thin aluminium rods, each end of the rod was then clipped onto thin plastic continuous belts, one each side of the processor. The leading end of the paper roll was folded around the rod and stapled back onto itself. When the machine’s drive motor was switched on the rod attached to the belts then “pulled” the paper, which unrolled from it’s spool, through the machine.

A paper dryer was incorporated at the end of the machine. Once the end of the paper had been through the dryer the operator unclipped the rod, tore the end of the paper off the rod, and attached the end of the paper to an empty spool. The spool would revolve taking up the processed prints until the end of the roll had been reached. A small “darkroom” had to be built at the loading end of the machine as the paper rolls had to be loaded onto the machine in total darkness. In use, the machine's electric motor was running continuously, as then the operator could load one roll while others were still going through the processor. As the author found out in 1975, you had to learn how to load the machine while the machine was running, and in the dark !

This was the system with the “Durst 1112” colour print processor. This machine would take rolls of paper up to 12 inches wide. It was not possible to process sheets of paper on this machine. The two solutions and one wash were temperature controlled, and the replenishment system was automatic. The Durst 1112 Processor could be used for Ektacolor papers with Ektaprint 2 or 3 solutions, or with Agfacolor papers using Process 85 or 86. Process 85 and 86 were three solution chemistries plus one wash, similar to Kodak Ektaprint 3. It was an excellent colour print processor and took up little floor space. Dry to dry processing times were about 10 to 15 minutes.

5. Roller Transport Processors.
The colour paper, usually in sheets, was fed into one end of the processor, usually emulsion up, the operator being in a small darkroom built at the “feed in” end of the machine, similar to the Durst 1112. The rollers inside the processor “took up” the paper which was transported by revolving rollers through the tanks and washes to the built-in dryer where, once the paper had been dried, the processed prints dropped out of the machine into a basket. These machines were easy to load in the dark, and as long as the paper was the right way up when “fed in”, the machine could be left unattended, the operator collecting his prints or test strips when they had dropped into the basket at the end of the machine. The machines would process test strips as long as they were at least an inch wide. The author found out to his cost, when learning to load one of these machines in the dark, that you had to wait until the print you had just fed into the machine was, in fact, taken up by the machine and not to load another print on top of the first print !! Many roller transport processors were able to process rolls of paper as well as sheets, the method being similar to the one described with the Durst 1112 processor. The leading end of the paper roll was fed into the machine, and instead of a basket at the other end, a “take up” roll was installed. Dry to dry processing times were similar to continuous strand processors. As with the continuous strand processors, temperature and replenishment were controlled automatically and Ektaprint 2 or Agfa Process 85 or 86 could be used.

The “Kreonite” roller transport processor was a well known make. Others included the “Hostert Automata”, and various models of paper processors by “San Marco” taking different paper widths. There were many other makes of roller transport processors, some taking paper widths up to 54 inches wide for mural prints. In the 1970s, Kodak Ektacolor papers and Agfacolor papers were made in widths up to 50 inches wide.

Quantities of Ektaprint 2 chemicals ranged from a small kit of chemicals to make 1 litre of Developer and Bleach Fix for amateur photographers using dishes or rotary discard tanks to 100 litre units of each solution for continuous strand and roller transport processors, plus others, in use in medium to large colour processing laboratories. Ektaprint 3 Stabilizer chemicals were also obtainable to make up to 100 litres of working solution.

     

PUBLICATIONS - see also

Eastman Kodak published various documents on the handling, processing and printing of their colour negative materials. One of the first of many was a 16 page booklet issued free of charge to professional photographers entitled “Printing Color Negatives on Kodak Color Print Material, Type C”, published in 1956. This was later enlarged to an A5, 56 page publication entitled “Printing Color Negatives”, the first edition being published in July 1958. “Printing Color Negatives” gave instructions on how to make successful prints using the then, new, Kodak Color Printing Filters which could be placed in a filter draw above the negative (white light printing).
Directions were given on tank processing and dish processing of Ektacolor Paper in Process P-122 chemicals including a page on processing faults. Also there were sections on “Negative Evaluation”, Contrast Control”, and “Printing Transparencies”.
“Printing Color Negatives” was available as one of Eastman Kodak’s “Color Data “ books, No. E-66.

The book was subsequently enlarged again to A4 size, published as the fourth edition in 1969. By this time the “Ektaprint C” process had been in use for a number of years, to be replaced by “Ektaprint 3” in 1970. A fifth edition, published in May 1975, gives instructions on Ektaprint 3 chemistry, and printing Ektacolor and Vericolor II negatives on Ektacolor 37RC paper.


Acknowledgements:
Michael Talbert sends his many thanks to Richard Frieders of the “Photographic Society of America” (P.S.A) for finding and sending various articles from past P.S.A. Journals concerning Kodacolor film and other information relating to colour negative materials.

Michael Talbert started making colour prints in 1969, using Kodak Ektacolor Commercial paper. He was a photographic colour printer in the 1970s, printing colour negatives mainly onto Agfacolor paper. He also had experience using about 10 types of Kodak paper, plus other makes, Gevacolor, Fuji, Paterson, Konica.

Michael now sets up and takes “Retro” fashion pictures, but prints them digitally.

See his web page selling Retro Greeting Cards


This page last modified: 15th April 2014